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A. H. CHURCH, M.A., D.Sc, F.R.S. 

Professor of Chemistry in the Royal Academy of Arts in London 

Sometime Professor of Chemistry in the Royal Agricullural College^ Cirencester 

Author of '* The Food Grains of India " ; '' The Laboratory Guide for AgricuUural 

Students " y etc. etc. 

or TMC 


Published for the Board of Education 

BY ' 





//? the present issue {which completes the i^jth thousand) 
of the Handbook on Food, some more recent statistics have 
been introduced, while a few mistakes and misprints have 
been corrected, 

October, 1902. 


Thirteen years ago I prepared, at the request of the Committee , 
of Council on Education, a Handbook on the subject of food. 
The volume was stereotyped ; six thousand copies have been 
printed from the plates. The last reprint being exhausted, and 
much progress having been made since 1876 in our knowledge 
of the composition of food and of its offices in the nutrition of 
the body, it was deemed advisable to prepare a new and amended 
edition of the work. 

The book was originally written to serve as a guide to the 
study of the National Food Collection, which for seventeen years 
has been placed in the Branch Museum at Bethnal Green. A few 
words concerning the origin and character of that collection 
may fitly here be given. The first suggestion of such a series of 
specimens was made by Thomas Twining, Esq., of Twickenham, 
who planned an Economic Museum, illustrative of the materials 
and processes of everyday life. The Food Collection was first 
arranged in 1S57, when it became part of the General Museum 
of the Science and Art Dej)artment For some time it was under 
the direction of the Rt. Hon. Sir Lyon Playfair, K.C.B., who 
himself did much good service by his study of the relations 
between food and work. The late Dr. E. Lankester was subse- 
quently entrusted with the superintendence of the Collection, 
which was afterwards remodelled and enlarged by the author 
of the present volume. 

The Food Collection has formed the model on which several 
similar collections, in Europe and our Colonies, have been 
arranged. It contains a tolerably complete series ot such food- 
stuffs, animal and vegetable, as admit of easy preparation and 
preservation. It is explained by numerous descriptive labels, 
tabular statements, classifications, diagrams, and drawings. But 

■ n 


its main characteristic consists of what may be termed displayea 
analyses^ in which the starch, oil, water, and other substances 
contained in one pound of the chief food materials are shown in 
bottles or trays. Here may be seen the actual constituents of 
bread-stuffs, pulse, milk, eggs, and butchers' meat. In ihe 
various cases of the Food Collection references are given to those 
pages of the present Handbook where descriptions of their chief 
contents may be found. 

The plants which yield the various vegetable food products 
described in the following pages have been named in accordance 
with the Official Guide to the Museums in the Royal Gardens, 
Kew : the nomenclature of such animals as are mentioned is that 
given in the Guides to the British Museum of Natural History. 

In an elementary manual embracing a great variety of 
subjects, it is impracticable to name specifically each authority 
whose results have been utilised. I take, however, this oppor- 
tunity of acknowledging generally the great obligations I am 
under to the labours of numerous workers in the sciences con- 
nected with food and dietetics. I have consulted the treatises 
and memoirs of Atwater, Beaunis, Dupr^, Forster, Frankland, 
Gorup-Besanez, Huxley, Johnston, Kcenig, Lankester, Lawes, 
and Gilbert, Meinert, Moleschott, Pavy, von Pettenkofer, 
Playfair, Vierordt, von Voit, an4 Zuntz. There have been 
incorporated into the present volume some parts of the " Guide 
to the Food Collection," compiled by the late Dr. E. Lan- 
kester in 1863, as well as portions of the "Inventory of the 
Food Collection," revised by Professors Frankland and Huxley. 
The responsibility for the great majority of the analyses of foods 
given in the following pages rests with the author, who has been 
working on this subject for nearly a quarter of a century. 

Kew, /««^. 188^ 


PART L- Of Food m General 

§ r. The Uses of Food .... 

§ 2. Composition of the Human Body 

§ 3. The Classification of Food 

§ 4. Water as Food .... 

§ 5. Salts, or Mineral Matter, in Food 

§ 6. Carbon-compounds or Heat-givers 

§ 7. Nitrogenous Compounds or Flesh-formers 

§ S. A Day's Ration .*•,.. 








PART Il.^Of Vegetable Foods, 

§ I. The Cereals or Breadstuffs 

§ 2. Pulse 

§ 3. Roots and Tubers 

§ 4. Leaves, Stems, Stalks, and whole Plants 

§ 5. Saccharine Fruits 

§ 6. Nuts and Oily Fruits . • . . . 





PART JIL— Of Animal Foods. 

§ I. Milk and Dairy Produce 

§ 2. Eggs 

§ 3. Butchers' Meat , 

§ 4. Poultry, Game, etc. 

§ 5. Fish, etc. 

§ 6, Bacon and Preserved Meats 





viii ' CONTENTS. 

PART IV.— Of Food-Adpmcts. 


§ r. Beer, Wine, and SpiRfxs ..«.«•• 1S5 

§ 2. Condiments, Spices, and Flavourers . . « . . 201 

§ 3. Vinegar, Pickles, and Acids 210 

§ 4. Tea, Coffee, and Cocoa 213 

§ 5. Tobacco and Opium . , . , . , . ,221 

PART v.— Of Diet and Dietaries, 

§ I. Food-equivalents . 226 

§ 2. Official and Special Dietaries .»».'• 236 

§ 3. National Foods . . . , . t • . . 240 

§ 4. Ancient Foods ..«.««>•*. 245 

Index .»ii t ». t »».,». 247 

or THt 




§ I. — The Uses of Food. 

In order to show dearly what is the nature of the food of man, 
and what the work which it has to perform in the body, we may 
make use of a comparison which will be familiar enough to our 
readers. Let us compare the complex, living machine of the 
human body with a locomotive engine. In the case of the 
engine, we have, first, its material structure; secondly, the fuel 
in the form of coke or coal with which it is constantly supplied ; 
thirdly, the air wliich enables the coke to burn ; fourthly, water ; 
and fifthly, waste, in the shape of ashes, cinders, and gases. 
In the case of the human body we likewise have, first, a 
material structure ; secondly, fuel, in the form of our daily rations 
of food; thirdly, air, which enters into the lungs, and serves to 
consume the food; fourthly, water; and fifthly, the waste 
products, which are thrown out of the body by different channels. 
In both cases the fuel is burnt by the aid of air, the oxygen of 
which unites with the combustible part of the fuel, and in so 
doing the power of doing work or potential energy in the 
materials which combine is set free as heat and motion. In the 
steam-engine this heat is chiefly used to change water into steam, 
and then, by the expansion which accompanies this change, 
motion is produced. In the human body, the warming of water 


and its conversion into steam or vapour form a quite subordinate 
part of the work done by the heat given out during the burning 
of substances contained in or made from the food taken. What 
happens in the body is briefly this. The greater part of the 
carbon and of the available hydrogen in the dry matter of food, 
after undergoing certain changes, becomes quietly and steadily 
burnt in the body into carbonic acid gas and water. This com- 
bustion may go on in all parts of the body whither oxygen has 
been carried from the lungs by the blood, but it occurs chiefly in 
the muscles. The energy, called potential energy, laid up in the 
compounds thus burnt is given out partly as heat, which keeps 
the temperature of the body up to blood heat (98° '4 Fah.), and 
partly in other forms, as that of work or mechanical motion. All 
the internal and exlernal work, of the body is thus done by the 
ptored-up energy of the food which is burnt or oxidized therein. 
This food, by digestion and assimilation, becomes indeed first 
of all a part of the body, and then, but not till then, to any 
extent, does it burn and give rise to heat and motion. There 
are, therefore, many differences between combustion as it goes 
on in a locomotive and combustion as it goes on in the body. 
In both structures carbon and hydrogen are burnt by oxygen, 
but in the body the oxidation is slow, and takes place in the 
very midst of water and wet matters. In the body, too, its parts 
are themselves, to some extent, consumed by this oxidation, and 
so the food has the new and additional office to perform of con- 
tinually rebuilding the very machinery which it keeps warm and 
in motion. We have said that there are waste matters thrown 
out by the locomotive and by the human body. These, too, are 
not all the same, though they are alike in the animate and the 
inanimate machine. In the engine the fuel gives rise, by union 
with oxygen, to carbonic acid gas and water-vapour, which escape 
into the air; and at the same time those small portions of the 
fuel which escape Crxidation and those which are incapable 
of being oxidized, together form ashes and cinders. In the 


human body carbonic acid gas and water-vapour are likewise 
produced, and then got rid of in the air which we breathe out 
and in the exhalations from the skin ; but a good deal of the 
carbon and of the hydrogen of our food remains in the various 
substances excreted by the bowels and the kidneys. The 
locomotive is a comparatively simple mechanism, constructed 
for one definite end \ the human body, on tlie other hand, is 
most complex, and performs many different functions. Indeed 
it may be likened to a system compounded of a number of 
associated steam-engines, each member of the system possessing 
certain characteristic peculiarities of pattern, of use, and of fuel. 
Again, the activity of the body is at least twofold — muscular and 
nervous — and it has numerous differing parts, requiring different 
and constant nourishment. These parts include the nervous and 
muscular systems, membranes, glands, cartilages, bones and other 
tissues. Moreover the body is a living and thinking entity, and can 
vary at will within certain limits, the extent and direction of its own 
activities; in these peculiarities it differs strikingly from any mere 
mechanical contrivance. But we need not further contrast and 
compare the actions which go on in the two cases, for we have 
said enough to give some notion about the nature of food and 
about the work which it has to do in the body, and to illustrate, 
or rather to indicate, the way in which that work is done. 

§ 2. — Composition of the Human Body, 

We ma/ now consider the composition ot the human body. 
Every one will allow that the body contains different kinds of 
materials — that it is built up of skin, and fiesh, and bone, and 
blood, and other sorts of s'-.b£tances. But when we look a little 
more closely into these things, we soon learn that under the 
name of bone, for example, we have a complex, and not a simple 
material — it is complex as to the way in which it is constructed, 

B 2 


and complex as to the chemical composition of its constituent 
parts. Here we attend to the latter point chiefly, and taking 
into account all the different solids and liquids which make up 
the mass of the body, we find that these consist of a large 
number of substances which are chemical compounds. The 
compounds contain sometimes two, but oftener three or four 
elements, united together by chemical attraction in definite pro- 
portions. These compounds are very numerous, something like 
twenty of them having been discovered in the brain alone ; but 
we intend here to name only those which are best known or 
most abundant. 

As yet no complete chemical examination of the total con- 
stituents of a healthy human body has been made ; we cannot, 
therefore, state the amounts of the several ingredients which it 
contains with exactness, but the figures which follow, mainly 
derived from numerous analyses of separate parts or organs, will 
afford some notions on this interesting subject. But it must be 
noted that the weights given are the roughest approximations 
to a general average. Very great discrepancies will be seen when 
the amounts set down, of the chief compounds in the human 
body, by different authorities are compared. These discrepancies 
arise mainly from three causes : (i), the varying weight of the 
several distinct important soft organs of the body ; (2), the varying 
weight of the bones; (3), the varying amount of fat present. 
This third and last cause of variation is the most important. For 
with an increase of fat the amount of water present in the human 
body greatly diminishes, and vice versd. So a recent writer, who 
assumes that a normal man (weighing 154 pounds), contains just 
24 pounds of fat, assigns him no more than 94 pounds of water. 
The author of this handbook, working in part from original and 
unpublished data, finds no more than 4j^ pounds of fat, but no 
less than 109 pounds of water. In making our calculations, we 
assume that we are analysing (that is, chemically pulling to pieces) 
a man in perfect health, 25 to 30 years of age, 5 feet 8 inches in 


height, and weighing 11 stone,' or 154 pounds. Throwing out of 
our hst the minuter and less certain details, we find that 

The human body is made up of the following compounds : 

lb. oz. ' gf. 

1. Water : which is found in every tissue and secretion, and 

amounts altogether to 109 o CJ 

2. Albumen, Myosin, and similar substances, forming the 

chief organic material of muscular flesh, and 

also occurring in chyle, lymph, and blood - 16 S o 

3. Phosphate of Lime : in all tissues and liquids, but 

chiefly in the bones and teeth - - - 8 12 o 

4. Fat : a mixture of three chemical compounds ; dis- 

tributed throughout the body ... 480 

5. Ossein or Collagen : the organic framework of bones, 

and the chief constituent of connective tissue ; 

it yields gelatin when boiled - - - - 473 5° 

6. Keratin, with other similar nitrogenous compounds, 

forms the chief part of the skin, epidermis, 

hair, and nails, and weighs about - - - 420 

7. Cartilagin or Chondrigen : a nitrogenous substance, 

is the chief constituent of cartilages ; it re- 
# sembles the ossein of bone, and amounts to - I 8 o 

8. HiEMOGi.OBiN, a very important nitrogenous substance 

containing iron ; it gives the red colour to the 

blood, and amounts to 180 

9. Carbonate of Lime is found chiefly in bone - - i o 350 

10. Neukin, with lecithin, cerebrin, and several other nitro- 

genised, sulphurised, or phosphorised com- 
pounds, is found in brain, nerves, etc. - o 13 O 

11. Fluoride of Calcium is found chiefly in bones and 

teeth 071 75 

12. Phosphate of Magnesia, chiefly in bones and teeth - 070 

13. Chloride of Sodium, or common salt, occurs through- 

out the body 070 

14. Cholesterin, Inosite, and Glycogen are compounds 

containing carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen, 

found in brain, muscle, and liver . - - 030 

15. Sulphate, Phosphate, and Organic Salts of 

Sodium are found in all liquids and tissues - 02 107 

16. Sulphate, Phosphate, and Chloride of Potassium 

are found in all tissues and liquids - - 01 300 

17. Silica occurs in hair, skin, and bone ... - o o 30 

154 o o 


In giving the foregoing list we do not pretend to do more 
than approximately represent the quantities of the several com- 
pounds present in the body ; indeed, these quantities are for ever 
changing. Nor does this catalogue include every kind of mate- 
rial necessary to the human organism, or found in it at any given 
time. There will be present food in different stages of digestion ; 
carbonic acid gas with free oxygen ; and a great number of com- 
plex organic compounds, each occurring, it may be, in very small 
quantity, but still not on that account without importance. All 
these matters are either omitted from our list, or else must be 
considered as included under the names given to better known 
or more abundant compounds. It may be mentioned here that 
about I GO distinct organic compounds have been found in the 
human body. 

Now that we have recorded of what materials, or proximate 
principles, as they are often called, the human body is built, we 
must pass on to inquire into the nature of these materials them- 
selves. They are compounds^ that is, are made up of two or more 
separate and distinct sorts of matter — that is, of two or more 
elements. Water, for example, is a compound of two elements 
— hydrogen and oxygen ; albumen contains, besides these two 
elemtnts, three others, namely, carbon, nitrogen, and sulphur; 
yet no one of the compounds contains all the sixteen elements 
necessary to the body as a whole — indeed, no single compound 
present has in it more than six of these. Before trying to find 
out how much of each element is present in the body, let us see 
in what compounds the several elements occur. 

Water consists of hydrogen and oxygen. 

Albumen, Myosin, Ossein, Keratin, Cartilagin, contain c(urbo)^, 

hydrogen^ oxygen^ and nitrogen^ and sulphur (in the first two). 
HiEMuGLOBiN, all the above elements with iron as well. 
Neukin and Cerebrin contain carbon, hydrogen, niii'ogefty and oxygen. 
Lecithin contains carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, phosphorus, and oxygen. 
Fat, Cholesterin, Inosite, and Glycogen, contain carbon^ hydrogeii^ 

and oxygen. 
Phosphate of Lime zovi'i-sxas, calcium, phospliorus^ 9sA 9xygtn» 


Carbonate of Lime contains calcium^ carbon, and oxygen. 

Fluoride of Calcium contains calcium ^vA fluorine. 

Phosphate of Magnesia contains magnesium, phosphorui^ and oxygen. 

Chloride of Sodium contains sodium and chlorine. 

Sulphates contain different metals with sulphur and oxygen. 

Silica is a compound of silicon and oxygen. 

The following is a list of all the elements that are invariably 
found in the human body. It will be seen that there are sixteen 
of them in all, seven of these being metals, and the remainder 
(which we place first) non-metallic : 

lb. 01. 

Elements of the Human Body, 

1. Oxygen : a gas, the great supporter of combustion. This 

gas constitutes ^ths of the weight of water and 
more than ^th of the air. The quantity in 
the human body (most of which is combined 
with hydrogen, in the form of water) would 
fill a space of some 1,290 cubic feet, and 
would weigh about ----- 109 o 335 

2. Carbon : a solid, occurs nearly pure in charcoal. The 

carbon in the body is variously combined with 
other elements, and by its burning sets free 
heat, and produces carbonic acid gas - - iS 10 150 

3. Hydrogen : a gas and the lightest substance known. It 

occurs mainly in water; the quantity in the 
human body would fill a space of some 2,690 
cubic feet, and would weigh about - - 14 3 150 

4. Nitrogen : a gas without energetic properties. It is an 

essential part of all bone, and blood, and 
muscle. The quantity in the body would 
occupy about 66 cubic feet, and would weigh 
about 4140 

5. Phosphorus : a solid. It occurs specially in various 

compounds of the bones and of the brain. 
It burns so readily in air, that it must be 
kept under water. In the human body we 
find about I 12 25 

6. Sulvhur : a yellow combustible solid, often called brim- 

stone. Like all the preceding elements, it is 
found in all the tissues and secretions of the 
body, but always in combination. It amounts 
to 080 


lb. oz. i^T 

7. Chlorine : a greeni:sh-yelIow corrosive gas, found in the 
body chiefly in union with sodium, the com- 
pound being common salt. The chlorine in 
the human body would, if free, fill a space of 
I cubic foot and 772 cubic inches, and would 
weigh 041 50 

S. Fluorine : a gas with a chemical activity exceeding 
even that of chlorine. It is found united with 
calcium in the bones and teeth. The quantity 
in the body would fill a space of 2 cubic feet 
and 510 cubic inches. It would weigh - 3 300 

9. Silicon : a non-metallic solid, occurring in union with 
oxygen, in hair, bones, blood, bile, saliva, 
and skin 00 14 

10. Calcium : a metal, the basis of lime. It occurs chiefly 

in bones and teeth .... - 313 190 

11. Potassium: a metal, the basis of potash. It is lighter 

than water, and when placed on it burns with 
a lilac flame. It occurs mainly as phosphate 
and chloride ©3 34^ 

12. Sodium : a metal, the basis of soda. It is lighter than 

water, and must be kept from the air. It 
occurs chiefly in union with chlorine as com- 
mon salt, but also in other compounds in bile o 3 217 

13. Magnesium : this metal is found, in union with phos- 

phoric acid, mainly in bones . - • - 02 250 

14. Iron : this metal is essential to the colouring matter of 

the blood. It occurs everywhere in the body o o 65 

15. Manganese : a metal much like iron. Faint traces occur 

in the brain, and decided traces in the blood. 

16. Copper : traces of this metal are invariably found in the 

human brain, and probably also in the blood. 

Lithium and lead have been frequently found, but not in 
quantities that could be weighed, in both muscles and blood. 
These elements cannot be regarded as essential parts of the 
human body. 

We have now seen of what compounds and elements the 
human body is made up, and, therefore, we may now inquire 
what must be the quantity and character of the food which has 
to furnish them. But our inquiry must also include another 
point — namely, the materials with which the machinery of the 


human body is kept in action. In short, we must study food not 
only as a constructive and reparative material, but as fuel — as 
the source of heat and force. 

The materials of the human body, that is, the compounds 
of elements of which it is constructed, are, in most instances, 
either identical with, or similar to those compounds which are 
contained in food. Naturally we should expect this to be the 
case with animal food, but it is also true to a great degree in 
the case of vegetable products. And here it must be recollected 
that, with rare exceptions, compounds, and compounds only, 
not the separate elements, are capable of nourishing the body. 
Oxygen, indeed, is used in the free or uncombined state as an 
element, but the office performed by oxygen, as we have before 
explained, is quite different from that of the materials usually 
called food. 

It will be convenient to introduce here a classified list of 
the several compounds which occur in the vegetable and animal 
products used as food. A classification which takes into account 
both the chemical composition of these compounds and the 
purposes which they serve in the body will be adopted. 

§ 3. — Chemical and Physiological Classification of Food. 

Class I.— Nutrients. 

Division i. — Incombustible Compounds. 

Group i. Water — The carrier of nutritive materials and waste products: 
forms an essential part of all tissues ; is present in large proporlion 
where change is most active. 

Group ii. Salts or Mineral Matper — such as common salt and phosphate 
of lime^ which serve to effect changes and build up certain tissues. 

Division 2. — Combustible Compounds. 

Group iii. Carbon Compounds, such as starchy dextrin^ sugar, and fat, 
which serve to keep up the heat and movements of the body by 

10 WATER, 


the discharge of their potential energy during oxidation in tha 
organism. The fat of the body is formed in part from fat or oil in 
the food. The members of this group are often called "heaU 
givers," a term which is equivalent to " force-producers." 

Appendix to Group iii. Gum^ mucilagSy and pectosty approach starch in 
chemical composition, and probably serve the same end. Cellulose 
may be named here, but its value as a nutrient is doubtful. 

Group iv. Nitrogen Compounds, such as albumen^ myosin^ and casein^ the 
chief formative and reparative compounds of food : they also may 
yield fat, and by their oxidation set free heat and motion. They 
are often named "flesh-formers," while the group is known as 
the albuminoids. 

Appendix to Group iv. The ossein of bones and gelatin; cartilage and 
chondrin ; keratin and elastin from skin and connective tissue, — 
approach the albuminoids in composition, and may serve, in a 
measure, some of the same purposes in the body as those to which 
the true albuminoids are applied. This series of compounds may 
conveniently be designated the osseids. 

Class II. — Food Adjuncts. 

Group i. Alcohol, as contained in beej-s^ wines , and spirits. 

Group ii. Volatile or Essential Oils, and other odorous and aromatic 

compounds, as contained in condiments^ like mustard and pepper, 

and in spices^ as ginger and cloves. 
Group iii. Acids, as citric acid in lemons, malic iii apples, tafiaric in grapes, 

oxalic in rhubarb, and acetic in vinegar and pickles. 
Group iv. Alkaloids, as caffeine in coffee and tea, theobromine in cocoa, and 

nicotine in tobacco. 

We may now proceed to give a brief account of each Nutrient, 
following the order in which these compounds are classified in 
the preceding Table; the Food Adjuncts will be considered 
further on. 

§ 4. — Water. 

This important constituent of food is the carrier of food into 
and through the system, and forms more than two-thirds of the 
whole body. Water is contained not only in the liquids drunk 
as beverages, but in all kinds of solid foods. Here is a list of 




Vegetable Food, 

Fresh oatmeal - . . • 


Wheaten flour . . - • 


Maize meal . . . . 


Barley meal . . - . 

' 14 


' 14 

Haricot beans . . • • 

• 14 

Rice - . - » - 

■ 15 

Bread - . . 

. 40 

Potatoes . . . • 

■ 75 

(jrapes • • 1 


Parsnips • • 

ft » « 

Beetroot • 

Apples • • 


Cabbages • 

Onions • - • 

Turnips • 

Lettuce • • 

Fat pork 
Fat beef 

Animal Food, 





Lean of meat 

Herring - 








Although the above proportions of water seem generally large, 
these' foods do not suffice alone to supply all the water required 
by man. As every pound of perfectly dry food should be accom- 
panied by about four pounds of water, it is found necessary 
to consume water itself, or some beverage containing little else 
but water. 

Drinking Water. * 

Water for drinking must fulfil certain conditions. It must 
have no smell, even when warmed, but its taste must be pleasant 
and fresh. Seen in bulk it must not be cloudy or yellowish, 
but of a pale blue or bluish-green colour. Drinking water should 
always contain air dissolved in it This air consists of three 
gases— nitrogen, oxj'gen, and carbonic acid gas. Boiled water, 
having lost its gases, is insipid and flat. loo cubic inches of 
water should have from 2 to 5 cubic inches of gas in solution. 
Water likewise contains certain mineral matters dissolved in it. 
Of these the chief is carbonate of lime, but there are also 


sulphates, chlorides, and nitrates of sodium, magnesium, etc., 
present. But these dissolved mineral matters need not exceed a 
few grains, and should not amount to as much as 30 grains in the 
imperial gallon of water, which weighs a little more than 70,000 
grains. It is usual to call all the different matters left behind 
when a water is boiled down to dryness, impurities^ and in a 
chemical sense this is correct. In the pages that follow this 
common usage will be followed, but the reader should clearly 
understand that by " impurities " all substances present in water 
are meant — everything that is not water, be it harmless or even 
useful. An impurity is therefore very far indeed from being 
necessarily noxious. The larger the residue left by a water on 
its being evaporated, the less suitable that water will prove for 
most of the usual purposes to which water is put. It will be 
" harder " than waters leaving less residue, and so will consume 
more soap in washing without producing a lather ; it will leave 
more fur, or deposit, in kettles or boilers, and thus cause the 
waste of more fuel ; and it will extract the goodness of tea, coffee, 
etc., less thoroughly. By evaporating a pint of any particular 
water carefully down in a glass dish we see what residue it leaves, 
and can compare it with the residues left by other waters. But 
this residue may be made to teach us more about the water. Boil 
down a pint, or better, a quart of the water in a flat-bottomed 
porcelain dish, and then heat the dry residue gradually hotter and 
hotter. If the original residue is white and powdery in appear- 
ance, that is, so far, a good sign ; but if it is partly white and 
partly yellowish or greenish, and especially if there are gum-like 
stains round the residue, then on heating these parts of the 
residue we shall probably see them darken, fuse, and burn away 
in part, giving out fumes having a disagreeable smell. If the 
blackening is considerable, much organic matter is present ; but 
if the smell is offensive (like burnt feathers), then it is certain that 
the organic matter is of animal origin, and is, therefore, more 
likely to be unwholesome, or even poisonous. 


Another test for organic matter in water may be used with 
some facility. If a water contains substances derived from the 
decay of animal or vegetable matters, such as those in sewage 
and manure, and the refuse of plants, then it is found that such 
a water will destroy the beautiful purple colour of a chemical 
substance called permanganate of potash. The reason for this is 
as follows : The decaying organic matters of the water attract 
oxygen strongly when it is presented in certain states or forms. 
Now, a solution of the above permanganate contains much 
oxygen just in the right state to be so attracted and removed. 
By its removal from the permanganate the composition of that 
substance is altered, and its colour destroyed. The more organic 
matter in the water, the more permanganate will be decolourised. 
The test may be thus applied. Fill a clean white teacup with 
the water to be tested. Add about 60 drops, or a drachm, of 
weak sulphuric acid ; stir with a clean slip of window glass ; 
now pour in enough of a weak solution of permanganate of 
potash to render the water a rich rose colour. Cover the cup with 
a clean glass plate. Now, if there be much organic matter in 
the water, the colour will go in a few minutes, and more per- 
manganate may be added, and still lose its colour. It must be 
recollected in using this test that peaty matters and iron salts, 
which are not necessarily unwholesome, give the same result, and 
that perfectly harmless water may destroy the colour of a good 
many drops of permanganate solution. Much organic matter is 
suspicious, but not necessarily harmful. 

Another mode of testing drinking waters is the following : 
Nearly fill a clean tumbler with the water, and then add 20 drops 
of nitric acid, and 5 of a solution of nitrate of silver (lunar caustic), 
or else a small crystal of that substance. Stir with a clean slip of 
glass, and if there is more than a shght bluish-white cloudiness, if 
there is a solid curdy substance found, then there is too much 
common salt in the water. It may be said : What harm is there 
in common salt ? We answer, none in the common salt as 


such, but only in the common salt as evidence of some kinds of 
pollution. We will explain. Common salt (chloride of sodium) 
does not occur in rain-water, or pure well-water, except to the 
extent of a little over a grain per gallon. Of course there is 
more in waters from ralt-bearing rocks, and in waters near the 
sea. But generally, at all events in a chalk or limestone district, 
where common salt is found in any quantity exceeding i^ grain 
per gallon, which gives a mere cloudiness with nitrate of silver, 
the salt is derived from sewage ; in other words, from the salt 
consumed in human food, and voided chiefly with the urine. If 
a water be found to contain much organic matter and common 
salt, it is probably contaminated by house or town sewage. If 
organic matter be abundant, but accompanied by a smaller quan- 
tity of common salt, then the source of pollution is rather the 
excrement of farm animals than of man — or it may arise merely 
from vegetable refuse. 

Phosphates, shown by the molybdic acid test, are often 
another sign of animal pollution in a water. " Nessler's test " 
for ammonia affords also a useful means of measuring the 
pollution of a water. Rain and pure waters contain very little 
ammonia, sewage and many bad waters much. " Nessler's test " 
strikes a yellow or brown colour when ammonia occurs in 
sufficient amount. 

Before considering the other impurities of water, it will be 
better if we briefly state the several sources of drinking water. 

Water Supply. 

Water for drinking purposes is derived from Ave sources : — 
(i). Rain-water; (2), Rivers; (3), Surface-water, and Shallow 
wells; (4), Deep wells; (5), Springs. 

I. Rain-water always contains some impurities, both sus- 
pended and dissolved. As it falls through the air it acquires a 
little ammonia, as well as nitrous and nitric acids ; it dissolves 


nitrogen, oxygen, and carbonic acid gas ; and if there be any 
sulphurous acid gas, or hydrochloric acid, or compounds of arsenic, 
etc., present in the air — as in and near large towns and manufac- 
turing districts, it will carry these down with it. But it will also 
remove from the air much of the suspended matter which is 
always floating therein— the dust which is seen to be so abundant 
in air when a beam of sunlight falls across an otherwise darkened 
room. Thus it is that rain-water, or ever it touches a roof or 
the land, contains of solid impurities, organic and inorganic, 
nearly 2 grains in the gallon. This is the average result in the 
country, but the rain-water of London and large towns is far 
more loaded with impurities. 

Here it will be as well to state that the amount of rain 
falling in the London district averages less than 25 inches in 
the year : it is less than this on the eastern coasts of England, 
and gradually increases towards the west till there are found some 
excessively rainy places, as in North Wales, Cumberland, and the 
north-west of Scotland, where the annual rainfall is greater than 
75 inches. Let us consider what ong inch of rain really means. 
If an acre of land were covered with water to the depth of only 
the tenth part of an inch, that layer of water would weigh more 
than 10 tons : thus i inch of rain is ten times that amount — in 
fact, very nearly loi tons. A rainfall during the year of 25 
inches corresponds, then, to 2,525 tons of water per acre. 

If we collect rain-water as it falls in the country, we may easily 
render it impure in many ways. If it falls on a slate roof it 
suffers little change; if on one of tiles, it will take up scarcely 
anything save a little decaying vegetable matter from the mosses 
and lichens usually found on such a surface ; but if it falls on a 
limestone roof it dissolves calcareous as well as decaying organic 
matters. Further, rain-water acts on leaden pipes and cisterns, 
becoming charged with this injurious metal. 

2. River-water. — Directly rain-water comes into contact with 
the land it acquires fresh impurities. Even rain-water stored 


in tanks or cisterns may become decidedly unwholesome; but 
when, as in most parts of England, rain falls upon pasture land, 
arable land, or inhabited places, then its character is altogether 
altered for the worse. From the bones and other manures applied 
to farm lands, from vegetable and animal refuse, particularly the 
sewage-matter from human habitations, rain-water takes up, not 
only mineral matters, but decaying organic matters. If the water 
thus polluted does not have to pass through thick layers of 
chalk, or limestone or sandstone rock, but runs off the surface 
or through drain-pipes, it is charged with injurious matters. It 
often passes directly into rivers, which generally receive also the 
direct inflow of sewers, the foul discharges of factories, and the 
droppings of the farm animals which are pastured on the banks. 
Thus the use of unfiltered river-water for drinking and cooking is 
not to be recommended. It is fraught with risk to health. Its 
great variation in temperature is another drawback to its use. 

3. Surface-well water resembles river-water, but is likely to 
be still more loaded with dangerous impurities. For in a river 
the decaying animal and vegetable matters present become, in 
part at least, oxidized and rendered harmless by the dissolved 
oxygen of the water, aided by the suspended earthy or mineral 
matters. It will not, indeed, be safe to trust to such natural 
purification, for it is only partial at the best, and may wholly fail 
to remove the most deadly of the organic matters, the special 
poisons, for instance, of typhoid fever and cholera. With greater 
force the same statement may be made in regard to surface-wells. 
These merely receive surface soakage from the immediate locality : 
they are often near privies and pigsties, and not infrequently they 
are in communication with a neighbouring sewer or cesspool 
Many years ago the writer of these pages discovered, by means of 
spectrum analysis, that if a salt of the metal lithium were put into 
certain privies, cesspools, and leaky sewers, it could be soon 
detected in the water of neighbouring shallow wells in which it 
was not naturally present. In fact, wherever a clay or other 


water-bearing material keeps up the water, and there is a loose 
soil or gravel above, it is pretty nearly certain that the shallow 
wells dug in the earth will be in communication with the neigh- 
bouring cesspools. Often the level of the liquid in both will be 
the same. True, the sewage water will not pour in unfiltered and 
turbid, but it will pour in for all that, and mingle with the natural 
water of the well. We cannot depend upon the purifying effect 
of the few feet of gravel or sand that may separate the well from 
the cesspool. To the eye, and even to the taste, there may be 
no signs of the disgusting and dangerous pollution, but the 
pollution may be there, nevertheless. Sometimes these waters 
may be taken — perhaps for years — without bad results, but an 
epidemic may come, and then these waters may spread, and often 
have spread, death around. The poisons producing cholera and 
typhoid fever are contained in the discharges from the bowels of 
persons suffering from these diseases, and a small quantity of such 
discharges finding its way into water used for drinking, has been 
clearly proved to have been the cause of a frightful mortality 
amongst persons using these waters. There is scarcely a single 
shallow well in London which can be pronounced safe. 

4. Deep-well waters are generally palatable as well as free 
from injurious substances. The organic matters which the rain- 
water has carried down with it into the rocky layers below the 
surface, have been so altered by their passage through great thick- 
nesses of stone, that they have become oxidized, or in common 
language burnt It may seem strange to talk of burning taking 
place in water ; but the process of oxidation, whether slow or fast, 
whether it occurs when a candle burns in air, or food in the body, 
or animal and vegetable matter in water, is essentially the same 
process. The new products formed are harmless, indeed they 
may be even useful, but the oxidation must be complete. The pro- 
cess is not completed in shallow-well waters ; it generally is in 
deep-well waters. The final and harmless products are there. 
The nitrogen of the animal matters appears at last in the form of 



nitrates and nitrites; the carbon, as carbonic acid gas; and the 
hydrogen, as water. The nitrates and nitrites may be regarded as 
a sign of previous pollution, but they are quite harmless, and must 
occur in all the deep-well waters of a country like England, where 
so much of the land which rece*ives the rainfall is under cultivation, 
and consequently manured. Most farm lands in England receive 
yearly in farm-yard manure alone, nearly 30 pounds of nitrogen 
per acre, and some of this must find its way into rivers, wells, and 
springs. Deep-well waters are usually harder than any of the 
waters before considered, for they will have dissolved" out much 
calcareous, magnesium, and alkaline salt during their long course 
underground. They will probably, on the average, contain about 
30 grains per gallon of total dissolved substances. 

5. Spring waters are generally palatable and wholesome. 
They vary in hardness and as to total solid matters dissolved, 
according to the more or less insoluble nature of the rocks 
through which they have passed or which throw them out. The 
Rabate Fountain at Balmoral contains less than i grain per gallon 
of dissolved matter, while the average of the springs of the Lias 
shows 25^ grains. 

Hardness of Water. 

This may, perhaps, be the best place to introduce a few 
words about that quality of water which is usually called ha/d- 
ness, and to which we have before frequently alluded. In ordi- 
nary waters the chief hardening ingredients are salt of lime and 
magnesia. These decompose soaps, forming white, curdy, and 
insoluble compounds — lime and magnesia soaps, in fact, which 
contain fatty acids united with these earthy bases. The alkali in 
the original soap unites with the carbonic or sulphuric constituent 
of the lime and magnesia salts, forming carbonate of soda, which 
has cleansing properties, or sulphate of soda, which is quite 
useless. If then a water be hard from earthy carbonates, how- 
ever disagreeable washing with it becomes, still the soap, though 

or THI 



or J 


it will not lather, cleanses. But if earthy sulphates predomi- 
nate, then neither lathering nor cleansing can take place until 
the soap has destroyed these salts. In using a hard water 
for washing the hands, we instinctively use but little water, 
rubbing the soap between the hands wetted with water but not 
immersed in it. But in soft water we find that a very little soap 
will cause the whole of the water to lather. It is not ascertained 
that hard waters are unwholesome because of their hardness, 
though much mineral matter dissolved in a water is objectionable. 
But for washing linen and for baths hard waters are unsuitable, 
because of the white, useless, curdy matter which is formed with 
soap, and which wastes it, and may, if not removed by rinsing and 
rubbing, stick to the skin. The amount of soap destroyed or 
curdled by 100,000 lb. (10,000 gallons) of various waters is seen 
in this table. 


Soap destroyed, lb. 

Waters. Soap destroyed, lb. 

Thames - 

- 212 

Leicester • • • - 161 


• 204 

Manchester - - • • 32 

Kent Company's 

. . - 265 

Preston 80 


- 84 

Glasgow (Loch Katrine) - • 4 


. . . 285 

Lancaster . . . . i 

The hardness of water may be tested by a standard solution 
of soap, known as Clark's Soap Test. 

Organic Matter in Water> 

The organic impurities of water are even more important than 
the mineral impurities. Organic impurities are of two distinct 
kinds, organic compounds, and actual vegetable or animal 
organisms, which may be living or dead, and which, though 
invisible to the naked eye, may abound in waters which seem 
perfectly clear. Each kind of these organic matters may be 
further classed as harmless or dangerous. The great majority of 
all the varieties are perfectly innocuous. No water, save distilled 
water prepared with special care, is quite free from organic 
matter ; there is always some organic carbon and organic nitro^ej? 

c 2 


in it. Albuminoid matter in water is often spoken of as if it were 
necessarily dangerous; but there are perfectly harmless albu- 
minoids in peaty rivers and mountain lakes, although certain 
albuminoids, such as some of those present in sewage, are really 
poisonous. So again, even amongst the microscopic animals and 
plants which abound in many waters, it is only in very rare cases 
that they have proved to be injurious. Chemistry alone, however, 
is not competent to decide whether the organic compounds 
or the organisms in any water are harmless or the reverse. 
Nevertheless, we look with suspicion upon any water which 
contains an unusual amount of organic carbon and nitrogen. 
We know how, in the majority of cases, they have been intro- 
duced, they have entered with sewage. If we assume that average 
London sewage contains 7 grains of combined nitrogen per 
gallon (10 parts in 100,000), then if we find 3)^ grains in a 
gallon of water, we may conclude that the particular sample of 
water examined had received animal pollution nearly equal to 
half its bulk of sewage (we make a small deduction for the small 
amount of nitrogen compounds naturally present in rain-water). 
This pollution may not have arisen from actual house sewage, 
but from animal matters in decay, farm-yard manure, guano, etc. 
Nor can we. say that water which has been thus polluted is 
necessarily 7iow unwholesome. Such changes may have occurred 
to the offensive and unwholesome nitrogenous decaying matters 
as to have turned them into harmless mineral compounds — mere 
signs of previous contamination. 

So far, little has been said about the visible suspended matters 
found in many water supplies, attention having been drawn 
chiefly to the invisible and the dissolved impurities. In settling- 
tanks, and by passing through filter-beds, the muddy water of 
the Thames and Lea may be rendered bright and clear. For if 
the impurities of water were suspended in it, but not dissolved, 
thorough filtration would remove them. But, unfortunately, 
perfectly clear or bright waters may be as unwholesome, or more 


so, than muddy ones. Yet filtration does effect some change foi 
the better even in the worst waters, provided that the water filters 
slowly, and that the material of the filter is of the right sort and 
not rendered inert by previous use. An old filter, in which the 
charcoal, etc., has not been properly renewed, gives impurities to 
a water instead of removing them. 

The best materials for filters are these four : — 

1. Gravel and sand, if sharp and clean. 

2. Charcoal, especially burnt bone. 

3. Spongy metallic iron. 

4. Porous hard porcelain. 

The water supplied to London is filtered by means of gravel 
and sand, which generally cause the removal of i grain per 
gallon of dissolved matter and all the suspended particles. 
Animal charcoal, prepared by heating bones to redness in closed 
Iron retorts, is very effective, when fresh, in removing much 
organic dissolved matter and mineral salts from water filtered 
through it. But its softening effect is not of long continuance. 
A cheap and simple filter may be made by taking a large common 
flowerpot, thoroughly soaking it in clean water first, and then filling 
it up in the following way : — Plug the hole at the bottom with 
a piece of sponge, not too tightly ; put on this a layer of animal 
charcoal, then a layer of clean sand, and on the top a layer 
of coarse clean gravel. Many of the filters now manufactured are 
constructed in a similar way, but they require constant cleansing 
and constant renewal of the filtering media, and there is often a 
difficulty in securing the thorough filtration of the whole of the 
water passing out of them. Wherever possible it is best to let 
the water ascend through the filter. This may be done ii> 
cisterns and siphon filters. 

As a filtering material, spongy iron is excellent. It is even 
effective in reducing the hardness of water (often by two-thirds 
its original amount), and in removing the dissolved organia 


matter. There is, of course, much risk in trusting to any method 
of filtration for removing deadly or unwholesome matters from 
drinking waters, but if reliance can be placed on any material 
for this purpose, it would probably be on spongy iron. Both 
it and porous porcelain, when properly used, remove all the 
minute organisms from water. These organisms are generally 
and for the most part perfectly harmless, but they may include 
those which are the specific cause of definite disease. 

There are two metallic impurities which may be found in 
water used for drinking. One of these is iron^ which cannot be 
considered injurious to health, though its presence may render 
the water unpleasant to the taste and unsightly. This iron arises 
from the iron mains through which the water is conveyed. These 
ought always to be coated inside and out, when freshly cast, with 
a mixture of pitch and heavy coal or mineral oil. The pipes 
are heated to 500° Fah., and then dipped into the hot mixture. 
The black shining varnish thus produced protects the pipes from 
change and the water from contamination. 

The other metal occurring in some waters is lead. This is 
derived from leaden pipes and leaden cisterns, but it is scarcely 
ever found except in rain-water and very soft water : in these it 
may be present in dangerous amount. It may be detected by 
the brown tint produced on adding a drop of hydrochloric acid 
and some hydrosulphuric acid water to the suspected water. 

We may now consider the only truly chemical process adopted 
on a large scale for improving the quality of water, for filtration 
is, in the main, a mechanical operation. 

This is the plan of softening hard water by the use of lime, 
which was invented in 1841 by the late Dr. Clark, of Aberdeen. 
Waters from the chalk, limestone, and oolite may be made to 
lose most of their hardness by this process, just as effectually as 
by boiling. But if a water is not softened by boiling it cannot 
be softened by Clark's process, which is competent to remove the 
carbonates of lime and magnesia, but not the sulphates. Clark's 
process may be thus carried out in the case of the East London 


Company's water. Slake 18 ounces of freshly-burnt quicklime 
in a little water ; when the lime has fallen to powder, add enough 
water to make a thin cream with this powder, and stir the mix- 
ture in a pail. Then pour. this cream into a cistern containing 
50 gallons of the water to be softened, rinsing the pail out with 
more water, but not pouring out any lumps of lime that may 
have settled. Let into the cistern the remainder of the 700 
gallons of water, which 18 ounces of lime can soften, and take 
care that a thorough mingling of the water and lime occurs. 
The added lime seizes the carbonic acid gas which held the 
carbonate of lime in solution, and so both the original carbonate 
of lime and that formed in the process fall together as a white 
sediment. This takes some time to settle — from 12 to 24 hours 
— but the water may be used for washing before it has become 
quite clear. This process is carried out, with certai^i mechanical 
improvements, on a large scale at Canterbury, Tring, Caterham, 
and elsewhere. At Canterbury 110,000 gallons are softened 
daily by the addition of it, 000 gallons of lime-water, the total 
solid dissolved matter of the water being thus reduced from 23}^ 
grains per gallon to less than 8^. And not only are hardening 
matters thus removed, but organic substances (often iron also) as 
well. The process purifies, to some extent, as well as softens; 
and the method is not only effective, but cheap. It would re- 
quire 20^ cwt. of soap, costing ;£"47 i^. 8^., or 4^ cwt. of 
carbonate of soda, costing ;£"2 lyj. 6^., to soften the same 
quantity of water which could be treated by Clark's process for 
8^., the cost of I cwt. of quicklime. 

The purification of water by boiling it until it has lost its 
dissolved gases is effective so far as regards the softening of those 
waters which contain carbonate of lirne in considerable quantity. 
This earthy carbonate is held, for the most part, in solution by 
means of carbonic acid gas. This gas is dissolved by cold water, 
and not by hot. On boiling for some time it is discharged, and 
with it falls the earthy carbonate which it had served to hold in 
solution. Boiling water also, in some measure, renders innocuous 


the organic and organised impurities of a water, although implicit 
reliance cannot be placed on this method of purification. 

The distillation of water separates all solid impurities which 
are left behind in the stilL The dissolved gases and the trace 
of ammonia present are discharged, but condense in part when 
the steam condenses, and are found in the water which collects 
in the receiver. The water employed in the preparation of dis- 
tilled water should be clear and free from objectionable smell 
and taste. Distilled water is now prepared in London, on a 
somewhat extensive scale, for drinking purposes. By taking suit- 
able precautions, all metallic impurities are excluded from the 
product; it is also quite free from the disagreeable oily flavour 
which commonly characterises the distilled water of the laboratory. 
When charged with carbonic acid gas, under pressure, it becomes 
an agreeable and refreshing beverage, superior, in more ways than 
one, to the majority of the aerated waters in common use. 
Wholesomeness may be certainly predicated of it; it is not 
loaded with mineral salts, and for gouty and rheumatic patients 
it is a most desirable general beverage. 

London Water. 

London, with its inner suburbs, may be assumed to contain 
about 53.^ millions of inhabitants, and is supplied with water by 
eight private companies, which provide a daily supply of above 
200 millions of gallons. The following table gives the names of 
these companies, the sources of the water which they supply, and 
the average daily amount : — 

Water Companies. Sources of Supply. Gallons. 

East London ■« - Thames above Sunbury, Wells, and 

lea- 39,136,258 

New River - - - Lea, Springs, and Deep Wells - 37,587,688 

South wark and Vauxhall Thames near Hampton, etc. - 32,743,059 

Lambeth - -- • Thames near Molesey - - 25,234,360 

Grand Junction - - Thames near Hampton - - 19,804,675 

West Middlesex - - Thames above Hampton - - 21,344,911 

Kent - - . - Deep Wells in Chalk - - • 16,349,433 

Chelsea - - • Thames near Molesey - • - 11,853,571 



Some idea of the vastness of the quantity of water supplied to 
London may be obtained by comparing its bulk with that of a 
familiar building. A day's water supply would require a tank 

equal in area to four times that of Westminster Hall, but the 
walls would have to be carried up more than 100 feet above the 
top of the cross on St. Paul's Cathedral. And this quantity of 
water will not suffice for the increasing population as years go by. 
In 1850 the gross daily delivery was 44,500,000 gallons; in 1856 
it had reached 81,000,000 gallons; in 1875 it amounted to 
114,000,000 gallons; in 1883 to 139,800,000 gallons; and in 
1898 to 204,053,955 gallons. 

§ 5. — Salts, or Mineral Matter, in Food. 

The importance of water as a constituent of food has obliged 
us to dwell upon the subject of water supply at some length. 
Turning again to the classified list of Nutrients on p. 9, we find 
next to water a group of oxidized or incombustible ingredients, 
called salts, or mineral matter. These occur, as we have seen, in 
most drinking waters, and are found also in all parts of plants and 
animals used as food ; while one of them, common salt, the 
chloride of sodium, is added purposely to food — indeed is the 
only solid mineral substance so added and consumed. 

The quantity of mineral matter contained in some important 
articles of vegetable and animal food is shown in this table : — 

Mineral Matier in 1,000 lb. of 14 Vegetable Products. 


Apples - . - - - 4 

Rice -.-.-- 5 

Wheaten flour .... 7 

Turnips 8 

Potatoes 10 

Barley - - • - • 11 

Cabbage 12 

Mineral Matter in 1,000 lb. of 8 Animal Products. 

Fat pork - - - - . 5 Flesh of common fowl 
Cow's milk .... 7 Bacon - - - . 
Eggs (without shells) - - -13 Gloucester cheese • 
Lean of mutton - - - • '7 Salted herrings • 

Oatmeal - 
Peas - 
Cocoa nibs 
Wheaten bran 











It is not to be supposed that the mineral matter entered in 
these tables is in all cases of the same composition. It varies 
greatly in the different products named. In most seeds and 
fruits there is much phosphate in the mineral matter, and in most 
green vegetables much potash. One important kind of mineral 
matter alone is deficient in vegetable food, and that is common 
salt. This compound must be added in large quantity to the 
food of persons living exclusively on vegetables; while, on the 
other hand, there is no better way of counteracting the bad effects 
on the human body of a salt-meat diet than the use of lemon- 
juice and fresh green vegetables, which are rich in potash salts. 
It should be noted that 129 lb. of the 158 lb. of mineral matter 
in salted herrings are common salt. 

The mineral matters found in different sorts of vegetable food 
are not always the same as those which form part of the body, 
their constituents being more or less re-arranged and re-combined 
after their consumption as food. A hst of the most important 
kinds of mineral matter or salts found in or taken with food may 
be fitly given here. 

I. Common salt^ chloride of sodium, appears to be essential 
to the life of the higher animals. Some plants contain little or 
the merest trace of it. Salt is diffused everywhere, and accumu- 
lates in the ocean, rain steadily washing it out of soils and rocks, 
and rivers then bringing it to the sea. Salt occurs as rock salt 
and in brine springs, both of which usually contain many other 
saline substances or impurities. By boiling down and crystal- 
lising its solution, salt may be purified and obtained of various 
degrees of fineness — bay salt, kitchen salt, and fine salt. Salt 
should be fine-grained, white and dry, and without bitter taste, 
the latter defect being due to chloride of magnesium. Common 
salt suffers certain changes in the human body, and is not merely 
taken to be excreted. Its chlorine helps to furnish the hydro- 
chloric acid of the gastric juice, and the chlorine of the chloride 
of potassium found in red blood-corpuscles and in muscle. Its 


sodium forms part of the soda salts which are amongst the 
characteristic constituents of the bile, and of the phosphate of 
soda of the blood. Salt is much used in the preservation of 
animal food ; sometimes nitre is added as well. 

2. Potash salts^ such as the phosphate, the carbonate, the 
chloride, and the nitrate, are either contained ready-formed in 
vegetable and animal foods, or are produced from other potassium 
compounds. Dry seeds, for instance, usually contain much 
phosphate of potash, while fleshy fruits and the growing parts of 
plants are rich in potash salts of organic acids, such as the oxalate, 
tartrate, citrate, and malate. These are changed by oxidation in 
the body mto carbonate of potash, etc. etc. Potash salts in small 
doses are stimulating; in large doses they prove unmistakably 
poisonous. Nitrate of potash (saltpetre) is present in many plants, 
as lettuce and watercress. 

3. Phosphate of litney with small quantities of carbonate of lime 
and fluoride of calcium, is an essential mineral constituent of 
food. Phosphate of lime is well known as bone earth; it is a 
white, earthy-looking substance, nearly insoluble in water. It is 
always associated in all three kingdoms of nature with the 
carbonate, fluoride, or chloride of calcium. It is contained in 
seeds and fruits chiefly, and is essential to the bones and teeth, 
which it hardens and strengthens. But phosphate of lime is 
doubtless concerned in the formation, not only of bone, but of most 
other tissues. Magnesia salts resemble and accompany lime salts. 

4. Iron occurs in nearly all articles of food, though in very 
minute quantities. The ashes of all plants used for food contain 
distinct traces of peroxide of iron. In vegetables it probably 
occurs in combination with organic acids. Milk has been found 
to contain i part of iron in 57,000 parts. Iron is often, if not 
always, accompanied by a similar metal — manganese— which is 
present in the ashes of some vegetables, such as tea, in not incon- 
siderable amounts. "^n 

5. Of most of the acid constituents of the mineral nutrients 


we have already spoken ; but the sulphates have not been 
mentioned. It is considered that a part of the sulphuric con- 
stituent of the sulphates of the body is contained in the sulphates 
of drinking waters and vegetable food, but that some is formed 
from the sulphur of the albuminoid matters consumed. 

One of the main functions of mineral nutrients is to aid in 

the transference, absorption, and elaboration of the oxidizable 

•nutrients — somewhat after the same manner that a scaffolding aids 

the construction of a building. The same or similar offices are 

performed in plants by the mineral matters they contain. 

§ 6 — Carbon-compounds or Heat-givers. 

The third group of nutrients contains a number of oxidizable 
carbon-compounds, the chief of which are starch, sugar, and fat. 
Of these, starch and sugar, with many similar compounds, are 
often called carbohydrates. This term implies that they contain 
carbon along with such proportions of hydrogen and oxygen as 
exist in water. None of their hydrogen is available for heat-giving, 
since it is already associated with all the oxygen it can take up. 

I. Starch is, perhaps, the most important of the heat-givers 
or force-producers in human food. It occurs abundantly in the 
cereal grains, especially in rice, Indian corn, and wheat ; about 
17 per cent, may be obtained from potato tubers; is is also found 
in most leaves and stems, and in many succulent fruits. Starch 
occurs in peculiar forms called granules^ which are often quite 
characteristic of different plants. Starch is a white, glistening 
powder, insoluble in cold water, but nearly completely dissolved 
by hot water. Its solution, when cold, becomes an intense blue 
when a solution of iodine is added to it. Starch forms about Z-^ 
per cent, of the whole weight of tapioca, from the root of Manihot 
utilissima and M. aipi^ the mandiocca or cassava plants, natives 
of South America, and belonging to the Euphorbiaceae, or Spurge 
order. The roots of the bitter cassava {M. utilissima) contain 
prussic acid as well as starch, the former being separated by 
washing the grated roots, and allowing the starch granules to 


settle. Another well-known starch is that which goes under the 
name of arrowroot. It is obtained chiefly from the rhizome, or 
root-stock, of Maranta armidiiiaceay a native of the West Indies, 
largely cultivated in Earbadoes, St. Vincent, and Bermuda. Tous- 
les-mois is another starch, obtained from the tubers of Canna 
cdulis. Sago is likewise a starch, mainly produced by the sago 
palms {Sagus rutnphii and 6". Icevis). The trees are felled, split, 
and the starch washed out from the central parts. In the 
Moluccas sago cakes are a common article of food. In Ceylon 
and some parts of the East Indies a coarse sago is made from the 
nuts of Cycas revoliita^ etc. In Japan starch is prepared from the 
bulbs of Liliiim auratiwi, and of two other lilies; also from 
the rhizomes of the common brake, Pieris aquilina. The most 
common starches used in England as food are those from the 
tubers of the potato, from wheat, from rice, and from Indian corn, 
this latter often going under the name of corn-flour. Portland 
sago, or Portland arrowroot, is a starch obtained from the tubers 
of a species of arum ; while salep or saloop, once largely consumed, 
and still used in Turkey and the East as food, is a starch derived 
from the tubers of eleven kinds of Orchis, such as O. mascula^ 
O, maculata^ and O. Morio. The salep sold in London mostly 
comes from Smyrna. 

hiulhi^ from the roots of elecampane {Inula Heleniuni) and 
Jerusalem artichokes {Helianthus tubcrosus\ has the same composi- 
tion as starch, and closely resembles it in most of its properties. 

The following table gives the quantities of starch in 100 lb. 
of several kinds of vegetable products and preparations : — 



Sago, tapioca, arrowroot, corn- 


Millet, without husks • 

. 64 

flour, maizena 


Scotch oatmeal 

• 63 

Pearl barley 


Haricot beans - . . . 



• 76 

Peas .... 

■ 5» 

Fine wheaten flour - 

• 74 

Wheaten bread 

. 48 


• 71 

Wheaten bran - - 

• 44 

Wheat . 

. 69 

Potatoes . - . . - 


Maize - - - - 

. 66 

Parsnips . . * • . 

' 3 

Buckwheat, without husks - 

. 64 

Vegetable marrow - 

' o\ 


Some of these numbers include with the starch small quantities 
of dextrin, sugar, and gum — substances which subserve the 
same purposes in the animal system. 

Starch, like all the compounds of the group of nutrients' now 
under consideration, contains carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen only. 
It is never met with in commerce quite pure and free from 
moisture — arrowroot, for instance, containing from 12 to 16 per 
cent, of water, with traces of mineral and nitrogenous matters. 
Neither arrowroot nor any other starch can furnish the materials 
for the building up and repair of flesh or muscle ; it is, how- 
ever, next to oil and fat, the most concentrated, heat-giving, and 
force-producing of all the nutrients. "'To be digested, starch must 
be dissolved, or at least softened. These changes are effected by 
boiling in water, or baking in the presence of moisture, for starch 
IS insoluble in cold water. Thus the digestion of starch may be 
said to commence in its preparation by cooking. It proceeds 
further through the action of the saliva during mastication, a 
peculiar ferment called ptyalin which exists in the saliva being 
capable of changing starch into maltose, a species of sugar. In 
the stomach, such parts of the starch as have escaped previous 
change do not alter much ; but these are finally transformed into 
sugar (by the diastatic ferment of the pancreas), in the small 
intestine ; thence the sugar is absorbed into the blood. J" 

Dextrin has the same composition as starch, but it is soluble 
in cold water. It may be made by heating starch to 320* Fah., 
or by acting upon it with a small quantity of malt flour, or of 
nitric or sulphuric acid, for a short time. Thus prepared, dextrin 
often goes under the name of British gum. It is at least of equal 
value with starch as a food, and requires less alteration to change 
it into sugar previous to its absorption. It occurs to a con- 
siderable amount in bread, especially in the crust, in biscuits, 
and in some prepared infants' foods, as those of Liebig, Mellin, 
and Nestld. Beer contains a little dextrin. Starch, during 
digestion, is partly and temporarily changed into dextrin. A 

SUGAR. 31 

gummy substance called galactin, having the same composition as 
starch, but differing from it in several properties, has been found 
in the seeds of lucerne, and in the tubers of a Stachys, 

2. Sugar \% distinguished from starch by its solubility in cold 
water and its sweet taste. Its composition is slightly different 
also. But there are several kinds of sugar, which must be con- 
sidered separately. 

The most familiar sort of sugar is that which is sold under the 
name of cane sugar. Much of that consumed in England is 
derived from the sugar beet, a variety of Beta vulgaris^ a plant 
believed to have originated in the sea beet. The roots of this 
plant, when of good quahty and small size (2 to 3 lb.), contain 
from 10 to 13, sometimes even 18 or 20, per cent, of a sugar 
identical with that of the sugar-cane. Sugar beet is largely 
grown in France, Belgium, and Germany. It has also been 
raised successfully in England on a small scale. 

The oldest and best-known source of this kind of sugar is the 
sugar-cane {Saaharum officinariim)^ a handsome plant of the 
grass order, a native of Southern Asia. It grows to the height of 
12 or 15 feet. It has been long cultivated in most parts of 
tropical and sub-tropical Asia, and in the islands of the Indian 
and Pacific Oceans. From India it was brought to Europe, 
many centuries ago, and was afterwards introduced to and largely 
grown on the American continent. Our present supplies of cane 
sugar come from Java, British Guiana, Brazil, British India, and 
the West Indies. To prepare this sugar the canes are cut down 
when they begin to flower, close to the ground, the juice 
thoroughly expressed from them, clarified and boiled down. 
**Raw" or *' brown" sugar is the first product, along with 
molasses (except where the ingenious process called concreting is 
adopted, when no molasses are formed). By refining brown 
sugar — that is, re-crystallising and purifying by the aid of charcoal 
and lime, etc. — cleaner, purer, and drier crystalline sugars are got, 
and it is in these later refining processes that treacle and golden 

32 SUGAR. 

sirup are obtained. These sirupy liquids contain about 65 per 
cent, of uncrystallisable sugar, with some saline matters and other 
impurities, while the remainder is water. Sugar-candy and Tate's 
crystals are the purest forms of sugar; white loaf sugar comes 
next ; then the pale, dry, large-grained crystallised sugars ; while 
all the coloured moist sugars are of inferior purity, invariably 
containing not only water and uncrystallisable sugar, but also 
mineral and organic compounds. They are not unfrequently 
largely infested by a small insect, the sugar-mite {Acarus sacchari) 
many thousands of which have been frequently detected in a 
single pound of brown sugar. Whatever may have been the case 
formerly, sugar is not now adulterated, save, perhaps, with the 
kind of artificial sugar called glucose ; but sugar is often in- 
sufficiently purified. 

Many other grasses besides the sugar-cane contain large pro- 
portions of sugar. For instance, sugar has been made from the 
stalks of maize or Indian corn, cut just before flowering. The 
Chinese sugar-grass, or sugar-millet {Sorghum saccharatuiri)^ is 
another sugar-producing plant. It has been introduced into 
and successfully grown in France, Italy, Southern Russia, the 
United States, and Australia. A closely-allied species, called 
Imphee^ is grown by the Zulu Kafiirs, and yields not only 
sugar in its stems but much valuable starchy food in its grain. 

Another source of sugar is the sugar maple, Acer saccharinum^ 
with other allied species, as A. pemtsylvanicuniy A. negundo^ and 
A. dasycarpum. These trees of Canada and the northern United 
States contain a sap in which about 2 per cent, of cane sugar 
occurs. In the spring the sap is collected and boiled down, 

Jaggary is a sugar obtained chiefly from the flowering shoots 
of two Indian palms. Phoenix sylvestrls and Caryota uretis. But 
many other palms, as the coco-nut and the Palmyra palm, yield 
abundance of a sugary juice known as "toddy" when freshly 
drawn or fermented, and " arrack " when distilled. From these 
palms, and from the Arcnga saccharifera and Nipa fruticans^ 



palms of the Indian Archipelago, as well as from the date palm, 

riianix dactylifera^ j^gg^ry sugar is made. 

Of sugar, raw and refined, mainly from the cane, beet-root, 
and certain palms, 1,560,658 tons were imported into the United 
Kingdom in 1898. Not less than 698,702 tons of all the sugar 
imported were from beet-root, and came from Germany and 
Eelgium chiefly. Another species of sugar, called maltose, occurs 
in some cereal grains, and in larger quantity in malt. It has the 
same composition as cane sugar, but is less sweet. 

Many other plants besides those named above contain cane 
sugar. The expanding buds of trees, as of the birch {Belula alba\ 
yield a sap which, by fermentation, becomes birch wine, formerly 
made to some extent in Scotland. The following list gives, 
approximately, the proportions of ordinary sugar contained in a 
few important vegetable products, etc. 

Sugar (Saccharose and Maltose) in 100 lb. of 



Dried carob beans • 

• 51 

Malted barley - 

. 6 

Sugar-cane juice 

• 21 

Parsnips - 

• 5 

Chinese sugar-grass - 

• 13 

Carrots - 

• 4i 

Beet-root - - - . 

- 12 

Mahua flowers - 

• 3 

Maize-stem juice 

• 7 

Sugar maple sap 


It may be added that the solubility of cane sugar is such that 
two ounces require but one ounce of cold water to dissolve them. 
Sugar has the specific gravity i'59. It is not absorbed into the 
blood as cane sugar, but is previously converted, both by the 
acids of the gastric juice and by the nitrogenous ferments of the 
juices during digestion, into the variety of sugar called grape 
sugar, or into maltose. 

Sugar is extensively used to preserve fruits. Fruits boiled 
with sugar yield jams, preserves, and fruit jellies. Many fruits 
may also be preserved whole in sirup of sugar, or they may 
be subsequently dried, when they become " candied " or ** crystal- 


Grape sugar comes next in importance to cane sugar. Just 
as the latter sugar is found in many plants besides the sugar-cane, 
so grape sugar is abundantly distributed through the vegetable 
kingdom. More than this, it may be readily made from starch, 
dextrin, and cane sugar, by the action of weak acids. But, 
perhaps, a still more remarkable mode of obtaining this sugar 
is by means of the action of strong sulphuric acid or oil of 
vitriol, upon cellulose, the compound which forms the main 
substance of paper, cotton, linen rags, and some woods. Thus 
it happens that all these substances are now used for the manu- 
facture of grape sugar, or glucose as it is called. This glucose, 
being immediately fermentable, may be used to strengthen the 
worts in brewing, and for the direct production of alcohol. So 
spirit may be made from old rags and waste pawnbrokers' tickets ! 
In 1 901 foreign countries sent us 74,865 tons of glucose. 

Grape sugar, or glucose, exists in three forms at least. Two 
of these, dextrose and Isevulose, make up the main bulk of honey; 
the third, inosite, is found in some leaves, in the unripe pods 
of certain kinds of pulse, and in many muscles, and extract of 
meat. The variety of glucose called dextrose exists largely in 
sweet fruits, as the grape, and crystallises out in hard, warty 
masses when ripe grapes are dried, as in the case of raisins and 
French plums. The laevulose of honey and of acid fruits crystal- 
lises with great difficulty, and is generally obtained either as a 
sirup or, when dried up, as a glassy or resinous mass. These 
sugars, as well as maltose, are less sweet than cane sugar. They 
are immediately absorbed into the circulation when taken into 
the stomach. They are valuable nutrients, especially for the 
young, but may give rise in some disordered conditions of the 
stomach to an unusual production of lactic acid, two proportions 
of which are producible from one proportion of any of these 

The quantities of glucose or similar sugars present in a few 
important vegetable products may be seen in the following table :— 


Glucose (that is, Dextrose and LiEvuLOSE) in 100 lb. of 


Honey, or nectar of flowers • 80 
Dried Turkey figs - - '57 
Mahua flowers - * - '53 


Grapes - - ... 13 
Tomatoes - • - - - 6 
Cucumbers • - . - 2 

Milk sugar has the composition of cane sugar, but many of the 
properties of grape sugar, into which it is converted when consumed 
as food : it also yields butyric and lactic acids. Milk sugar has 
comparatively little sweetness, and is less soluble than the pre- 
viously-named sugars : its crystals contain one proportion of 
water of crystallisation. This sugar is often called lactose, and is 
one of the characteristic ingredients of the milk of mammals. In 
100 parts of cows* milk there are over 5 parts of lactose. 

A few other sweet, sugar-like substances of minor importance 
remain to be mentioned. There is Mannite, the sugar-like sub- 
stance of common manna, a substance produced by several 
kinds of ash, chiefly by Fraxinus ornus and F. integnfolia^ 
but occurring also in some seaweeds and mushrooms. We 
have also the sweet substance, glycyrrhizin, found in the liquorice 
plant {filycyrrhiza glabra), which is used as a sweetmeat and 
flavourer. Pomfret, or Pontefract, cakes are made from native- 
grown hquorice, the plant being cultivated at Pontefract, in 
Yorkshire. Sorbite, in mountain ash berries ; dulcite, piniie, and 
querdte may also be named here. It is doubtful whether these 
sugar-like substances, mannite and glycyrrhizin, are of equal 
value as nutrients with the true sugars, for no experiments have 
been made with these compounds. 

3. The Oils or Fats form a very distinct and important section 
of the group of heat-givers. Like starch and sugar, they can form 
no muscular tissue, but their power of maintaining the heat 
End activity of the body is nearly 2^ times that of the starchy 
rutrients. So far as their feeding properties are concerned, oils 
are identical with fats, the distinction between the substances 
thus named referring chiefly to their condition of liquidity or 

D 2 



solidity. Wax^ on the other hand, though possibly of similai 
value as a nutrient, differs somewhat from oils and fats, notably 
m not yielding glycerin. 

Oils and fats may be considered as formed from a fatty acid 
on the one hand, and glycerin on the other. Indeed, if three 
proportions of one of these acids, say palmitic acid, be heated 
with one proportion of glycerin in a closed tube, these substances 
disappear, palm oil or palm fat and water being produced. This 
palm fat, which is a glyceride, is called palmitin, and forms, v,'ith 
two similarly-constituted compounds, known as stearin and olein, 
most of the important fixed oils and fats, whether vegetable or 
animal. In many of these, however, other glycerides occur, as 
small quantities of butyrin and caproin in butter. 

The quantities of oil or fat contained in some important vege- 
table and animal products are quoted in the following table ; — 

Oil or Fat in ioo lb. of 



Palm-nut (pulp) 

- 72 

Hemp seed - • « 

• 32 

IJrazil-nuts (seeds) 

. 67 

Walnuts (kernels) - 

- 32 

Almonds (kernels) - 

• 54 

Gold of pleasure (seeds) - 

- 32 

Ground-nut (seeds) - 

• 52 

Cotton (seeds) - - . 

- 24 

Sesame (seeds) - 

- 51 

Sunflower (seeds) 

- 22 

Palm-nut (kernels) - 

• 47 

Fresh Scotch oatmeal 

- 10 

Poppy (seeds) - 

- 45 

Maize (grain) - 

- 5 

Olives (kernels) - 

. 44 

Wheaten bran • 

- 4 

Cacao (whole seeds) - 


Millet (grain) - 

- 3^ 

Olives (pulp) 

- 39 

Peas (seeds) - - . 

- 2i 

Linseed - - - . 

. . 38 

Wheaten flour - 


Coco-nut (kernels) 

. . 36 

Rice .... 




[AL Products. 

Butter - • 


i Mackerel - - " . 


Bacon ... 

. 65 

Eggs (yolk and white) 


Mutton-chop (average) 

• 35 

Cows' milk 

• 4 

Cheese (Gloucester) 

- 30 

Flesh of poultry 


Oils are most abundant in the fruits and seeds of plants, and are 
present in insignificant quantities in their roots, stems, and leaves. 


Of the vegetable oils extracted and used as oil in preparing 
and cooking food, olive oil, expressed from olive pulp, is the 
most important, at all events, in Europe. It is obtained from 
the fleshy exterior of the fruit of the olive {Oka Europea)» 
Walnut oil {irom fugians regta) is also an agreeable and whole- 
some substitute for olive oil. Many kinds of fruits, nuts, or 
seeds are eaten mainly on account of the oil they contain. 
Amongst these may be named : almonds, chestnuts, walnuts, 
hazel-nuts, Brazil-nuts, pecan-nuts, hickory-nuts, pistachio-nuts, 
beech-nuts or mast, cashew-nuts, sapucaya-nuts, souari-nuts, pine 
seeds, etc. 

Oils and fats are but little changed during digestion. They 
are divided into minute particles or globules, and then form what 
is called an emulsion — such as may be produced by shaking some 
olive oil and gum water in a bottle together. This emulsification 
is mainly caused by the pancreatic juice ; the finely-divided 
globules of oil and fat are then absorbed by the villi of the small 
intestine. These structures (which are limited to the region in 
question) seem to pick out from the chyme, or intestinal contents, 
the fatty globules, which are then transferred to the branches of 
the lacteals in the villi; thence the fat reaches the alkaline blood, 
where it becomes saponified. 

Besides its great use as a giver of heat, and therefore of 
mechanical force or energy, fat performs an important function in 
the body as the chief material of the adipose tissue. This fatty 
layer, where it exists beneath the skin, keeps in the warmth 
of the body; while such stores of fat as exist m this form 
throughout the organism may be re-absorbed into the blood, 
and keep up the animal heat and activity during abstinence from 

Many writers on food and nutrition are in the habit of speak- 
ing of the oils and fats as hydrocarbons. This term can be 
applied properly only to compounds which contain nothing but 
the two elements— hydrogen and carbon. Without exception 

38 GUM, ETC, 

every kind of oil, fat, or wax, whether animal or vegetable, con- 
tains oxygen as well as the two elements just named. This 
incorrect usage of the term " hydrocarbon " is, moreover, peculiarly 
unfortunate, since of the innumerable true hydrocarbons not a 
single one can be ranked as a niytrient or is capable of being 
oxidized in the human body. 

Appendix to Group III. — In the different parts of plants which 
are eaten as food there will be found many oxidizable or com- 
bustible carbon compounds which are neither starchy, saccharine, 
nor oily. As some of these compounds are known to be closely 
related to starch or sugar, and, indeed, have the same com- 
position in 100 parts, there is good ground for believing that 
they serve the same purpose in the animal economy. And this 
conjecture is confirmed by many experiments, especially upon the 
lower animals. 

Gum^ met with in many trees, as the apple, the plum, and 
some sorts of acacia, is near cane sugar in its composition. 
It is usually accompanied by a little lime and potash, and is 
found dissolved in the juices of many stems and fruits. Gum 
arabic and gum Senegal are two good examples of this substance. 
Gum arabic is considered to be a mixture of arabate of lime and 

Mucilage is found in many plants, as in the bulbs of the 
onion, in quince seeds, and in linseed. It forms a jelly with 
water, but does not dissolve to a thin liquid like gum arabic. As 
the mucilage of linseed suffers changes resembling those of 
starch when the seed is allowed to sprout, it probably undergoes 
solution and absorption in the body also. 

Fectose is found in many roots, as the turnip, and in many 
fruits, as the pear and peach, especially while they are unripe. 
When boiled with water, it rapidly changes into vegetable jelly, 
to one variety of which the name of pectin has been given. 
Similar changes occur in the ripening of fruits. The firmness 
of various jams and preparations of fruit — as damson, plum, 


and red-currant jelly — is due to substances belonging to the 
pectose series. In the present handbook we have usually given 
these substances under the single name of " pectose ; " partly to 
avoid needless complexity, and partly because of the imperfection 
of our methods of analysis, which do not yet enable us to give 
exacter particulars. There is good reason for believing that the 
substances belonging to the pectose group are capable of digestion 
and absorption in the human body. y 

Cellulose has the same composition as starch and dextrin, 
and is nearly related to these compounds. It is, however, in- 
soluble even in hot water. Cellulose is nearly pure in cotton, 
and in the cell-walls of many of the fruits, stems, and roots 
which are eaten as food. It is doubtful whether cellulose is 
digestible in the human organism, though it has been shown 
that it is digested by herbivora. But cellulose varies much in 
softness, texture, etc., and it is very likely that newly- formed 
cellulose may be changed and absorbed in part in the digestive 
process, while the firmer and older tissues containing the same 
substance may not be altered. These firmer tissues are, more- 
over, often of a different composition, for the cellulose is closely 
associated in many of them with certain substances, which are 
richer in carbon than cellulose, though their exact nature is not 
yet made out. However, three groups of such complex celluloses 
appear to exist: (i), Ligno-celluloses ; (2), Pecto-celluloses ; (3), 
Adipo-celluloses. Many of the vegetable products described 
in the following pages contain one or other, indeed more than 
one, of the members of these groups. The term " fibre," or *• in- 
digestible fibre," has been commonly used to designate these 
substances when they form constituents of vegetable foodi 
many of them have not infrequently been described as con- 
sisting of mixtures of true cellulose with lig7iose or lignin. We 
have been content in the present handbook to speak of them 
generally as cellulose. When that constituent is named in an 
analysis it must be understood to represent a class of allied 


substances, possessing certain characters in common, resisting 
more or less completely the solvent action of the digestive juices 
and having little or no value as nutrients. 

We are now in a position to consider the relative values of 
the several heat-giving and force-producing nutrients which have 
been described ; but a few words may be first introduced as to 
some points of difference between these compounds. 

The rate at which these different heat-givers are digested and 
assimilated differs greatly; and, as we have already seen, these 
processes of digestion are not performed by the same agencies 
and in the same regions of the organism. The greater part of 
the alimentary canal is the seat of such changes, yet portions of 
certain nutrients — especially when they are consumed in undue 
proportions and quantities — escape digestion. To give an ex- 
ample of how an important nutrient differs according to its source 
in the vegetable kingdom we may cite the case of starch. It has 
been found that uncooked starch from Indian corn may be com- 
pletely turned into sugar by the action of the saliva in 3 minutes, 
oat-starch in 6 minutes, wheat-starch in 40 minutes, and potato- 
starch in 3 hours — the quantities, etc., being the same in each 
case. But after thorough cooking all starches require nearly the 
same time. Common sugar is rapidly and perfectly changed 
into grape sugar or into maltose before assimilation; while 
the latter need no alteration to fit them for absorption. 
Fats, we have seen, are modified mechanically rather than 

The following numbers represent the proportions by weight 
of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen in 100 parts of the several 
members of this, the third group of nutrients : — 


Cane Sugar, 

Grape Sugar, 

Oils and 


Milk Sugar, 

Fruit Sugar, 



Mucilage, Gum. 

Muscle Sugar. 


Carbon • 













53 '3 



The weight of carbon in i lb. of each of the above substances 
is shown as follows : — 

Carbon in i lb. of— 



Starch and allied compounds • • 

• 7 


Cane sugar and allied compounds • 

. 6 


Grape sugar and allied compounds 

. 6 


Oils and allied compounds - • • 

- 12 


It should be recollected that in the case of the oils and fats, 
not only is the carbon available for the production of heat and 
force within the body, but the hydrogen, or most of it, may be 
similarly used. A good notion of the relative values of the above- 
described four classes of carbon-compounds in their heat-giving 
and force-producing capacity may be gathered from the results 
obtained in Dr. Frankland's experiments. He burnt these com- 
pounds in oxygen, and determined the actual amounts of heat 
they severally set free. Now, we know that heat and mechanical 
energy or work may be changed the one into the other. And 
it has also been proved that heat and work have a definite quan- 
titative relation to one another, so that the heat required to warm 
I lb. of water i^ Fah. may be changed into the amount of 
mechanical power requisite to lift 772 lb. i foot high. Thus, we 
may express the total heat producible by the complete combustion 
or oxidation of i lb. of these food-constituents in the form of so 
many pounds or tons raised i foot high : — 

Tons raised 
I ft. high. 

Starch (anowrout) - • - • • - 2,427 

Cane sugar -..-.•• 2,077 

Grape sugar - • - • - • • 2,033 

Oil (cod-liver) ••••.. 5,649 

According to Helmholtz, the greatest amount of mechanical 
work, outside the body, which a man could be enabled to perform 
by the combustion within the body of i lb. of each of the above 
substances would be about one-fifth of the amount given in the 
above table. This subject has been already referred to on p. 2, 


and will be again the occasion of some further remarks when the 
questions of the daily supply of food and of different dietaries 
are under discussion. It may be as well, however, at once to 
state that more recent determinations of the dynamic values of 
I lb. of the above nutrients give higher figures, namely, an average 
of 2,860 foot-tons for the carbohydrates, and of 6,450 foot-tons 
for the oils and fats. 

; - 

§ 7. — Nitrogenous Compounds or Flesh-formers. 

The fourth group of nutrients in food is marked out from 
those previously considered by the presence of the element 
nitrogen^ the element which forms 79 parts, by measure, in 100 
of common air; which is present in nitre, nitric acid, and 
ammonia ; and which is so much more abundant in animals than 
in vegetables. These nitrogenous compounds have been variously 
termed — Albuminoids, Proteids, Flesh-formers. 

Of these terms the first is to be preferred, and will be 
generally used in the present handbook. It involves no theory, 
but merely affirms that the members of the group resemble 
albumen (often spelt albumin), the characteristic constituent of 
the albumen or white of the ^gg. As a single member of this 
group seldom occurs alone in a vegetable or animal food, it will 
be simpler to use the general term " albuminoid " rather than to 
attempt to define, in each case, the two, three, or four allied 
substances which are believed to be present. The term proteid 
is very often employed in the same sense; but there is this 
objection to the word — that it implies the existence of a sub- 
stance called protein, which was supposed, but it now appears 
incorrectly, to form the basis of all the members of the group. 
The term "flesh-former" has a physiological, not a chemical 
meaning. It correctly designates the main office which the 
nitrogen compounds under discussion perform in the nutrition of 
the human body, and which they alone are competent to fulfil 


Perhaps it would be more exact to say that without the assist- 
ance of the albuminoids, or of one of them, the substance of true 
muscular flesh could not be formed. But it is time to give an 
account of the several members of this group, although our 
knowledge of them is too imperfect to admit of a satisfactory 

Formerly the albuminoids were thought to be three in 
number, respectively designated as albumen, casein, and fibrin. 
These terms are still employed, although with a more restricted 
meaning; but there are several albuminoids which cannot be 
fairly included in any one of these classes. 

1. Albuf7ien. Forms of this substance exist in plants, in 
white of egg, and in blood-serum. They are known as plant- 
albumen, egg-albumen, and serum-albumen. They are all soluble 
in pure water; they all coagulate on heating their solutions to 
about 120° Fah.; they are not precipitated by weak acids, except 
by nitric and metaphosphoric, nor by solution of common salt 
or alkaline carbonates. 

2. Albuminates, Casein of milk belongs here. This sub- 
stance, with the derived albumen prepared by acting on natural 
albumen with an alkali, is not coagulated by heating its solution, 
but it is precipitated by weak acids. Another class of albuminates 
exists, known as acid-albuminates. These are made by acting 
upon albumen (and some other albuminoids) by dilute acids. 
One of the best known of these acid-albuminates is syntonin^ 
which is derived from the chief albuminoid of muscle, called 
myosin, by dissolving it in exceedingly weak hydrochloric acid. 

3. Globulins, This series includes the fibrino-plastin of 
blood-serum, the fibrinogen of blood, chyle and serous liquids, 
myosin, the chief part of dead, rigid muscle, and vitellin, the 
chief nitrogenous constituent of egg-yolk. These substances 
coagulate at different temperatures. They are all soluble in a 
I per cent, solution of common salt, and in dilute acids, and 
alkalies ; they are insoluble in a saturated solution of common salt. 


4. Fibrins. These are all insoluble in water and in dilute 
solution of common salt. The fibrin obtained by whipping blood, 
or by leaving it to coagulate, is a type of this section. Two or 
three of the albuminoids which occur in wheat flour probably 
belong here. One of these is called gluten-fibrin; this is ac- 
companied by gliadin and mucedin. / 

5. Legumins. In the seeds of most, if not all kinds of pulse 
an albuminoid occurs, to which the name of legumin has been 
given. Conglutin, obtained best from lupines and almonds, and 
gluten-casein, which may be separated by exhausting crude wheat 
gluten with 70 per cent, alcohol, present many resemblances to 
legumin, but also certain differences, both of them containing, for 
instance, a higher percentage of nitrogen. 

6. Coagulated albuminoids. It is convenient to arrange those 
members of the group which have been rendered insoluble in 
their proper solvents by coagulation into a single section. 

7. Albumoses, When the albuminoids are submitted to the 
action of certain digestive ferments, such as the pepsin of the 
gastric juice, and the trypsin of the pancreatic secretion, they 
first yield a number of slightly modified albuminoids, which after- 
wards, by longer treatment with these ferments, pass into 

8. Peptones. These are distinguished from the true albumi- 
noids by the relatively considerable diffusibility, through mem- 
branes, of their solutions. Solutions of albuminoids proper do 
not pass through membranes. Peptones are very soluble in 
water; they are not precipitated by acids, or by alkalies, or by 
ebullition. Though most readily produced by pepsin or trypsin 
at the temperature of the body (98*4° Fah.), they may be obtained 
in other ways ; they exist naturally in some seeds. They have, 
it seems, the same cpmposition in 100 parts as the several 
albuminoids which, by a reverse process, they may reproduce. 

In the muscular tissue or flesh of many animals eaten as food, 
and in the various liquids of their bodies, other albuminoids 
besides those named are to be found. For the purpose now 


in view, it is sufficient to know that these matters are in all like 
lihood of equal value with the better known albuminoids, as flesh- 
forming nutrients. One of them, however, is of peculiar character, 
on account of the presence in it of a small quantity of iron (0-42 
per cent.). This compound is the red colouring matter of the 
blood — hcemo^lohin^ a most important substance, intimately con- 
cerned in the nutrition and aeration of the blood. Perhaps the 
digestive ferment of the saliva {piyalin)^ that of the gastric juice 
(pejjsifi), and tliat of the pancreatic secretion {trypsin), may also 
be ranged amongst the albuminoids. 

Appendix to Group IV. — Amongst the nitrogenous nutrients 
found in the parts of animals consumed as food are several com- 
pounds, of which we cannot affirm that they are true flesh-formers. 
They are probably turned to some account in the human body, 
but every constituent in • that complex organism may be made 
without their aid ; for persons living wholly on vegetable foods do 
not consume these substances at all. These nitrogenous nutrients 
are familiar to us under such names as gelatin and isinglass (which 
are indeed the only nitrogenous nutrients separately sold), but 
there are other varieties of them, which should be briefly noticed 

Ossein^ or collagen, is that constituent of bones to which their 
strength and elasticity is due; it is found also in connective 
tissue. It is insoluble in cold water and weak acids — indeed the 
best way of preparing ossein is to place a clean piece of fresh ox 
or sheep bone in a mixture of i part of hydrochloric acid and 
9 of water. After some time all the earthy matter of the bone 
will have been dissolved out, nothing being left but an elastic 
mass of ossein (with a little fat), retaining the shape of the original 

Ossein contains rather less carbon, and rather more nitrogen, 
than the true albuminoids ; there is no sulphur in it. It is some- 
times called collagen, for, though insoluble in cold water, it is 
slowly dissolved by boiling water, becoming thereby converted 


into gelatin, a substance of the same composition, but slightly 
different properties. The change of ossein into gelatin takes 
place more readily when the water in which the bones are boiled 
is heated a few degrees above the boiling point. This can be 
done by preventing the escape of steam — that is by heating the 
bones and water under pressure. The simple arrangement known 
as Papin's Digester answers this end perfectly, and enables the 
full amount of nutritive matter to be dissolved out of bones which 
are intended to be used as stock for soups. 

Many other substances besides bones may be made to yield 
gelatin by long boiling with water. These are tendons, con- 
junctive tissue, calves' feet, fisli scales, stag's horn. Isinglass, 
though not actually gelatin, is rapidly transformed into that sub- 
stance by boiling water, yielding one of the purest and most 
characteristic forms of gelatin known. Isinglass consists of the 
membrane of the swimming bladder of the sturgeon {Acijfejiscr 
of various species). Much so-called isinglass is merely gelatin 
prepared from some of the materials we have named, or from the 
cuttings of parchment and vellum. Thus " Warranted Calves' 
Foot Jelly " may have been made from old legal documents ! 
Gelatin sometimes contains sulphuric acid. Ivory dust, which 
contains ossein, is sometimes used for making jellies. 

Cartilage does not yield gelatin when boiled, but an analogous 
substance called chondrin. This material contains less nitrogen 
(4 per cent, less) than gelatin; it possesses somewhat different 
properties, and yields different products. The characteristic 
constituent of cartilage is sometimes called carlilagin^ sometimes 

Elastin and keratin^ and similar matters from elastic tissue, 
skin, epidermis, etc., are included in the present sub-group ; they 
are of small or doubtful value as nutrients. They, as well as 
mucin, the nitrogenous constituent of mucus, are almost entirely 
unacted upon by the gastric juice. 

We are now in a position to compare the relative values of 


the several flesh-formers and allied compounds included in the 
nitrogenous nutrients. 

It is probable that all the albuminoids have nearly the same 
nutrient value and serve the same offices in the animal economy. 
The rate at which they are digested, however, differs, animal 
albumen being the most readily acted upon and absorbed. When 
certain albuminoids, or small percentages thereof, escape digestion, 
it may arise from several causes, amongst which the inclusion of 
these substances within indigestible matter, as in coarse wheat 
bran, is not the least frequent ; and, as many of the older analyses 
of food products greatly exaggerated the percentages of albumi- 
noids present, it is not to be wondered at that a considerable 
proportion of some of these substances seemed occasionally to 
escape digestion and absorption. It must, however, be admitted 
that legumin, and the other albuminoids of pulse, seem to be 
but partially utilised in the human economy, unless the daily diet 
contain but a moderate proportion of them. 

The albuminoids suffer no chemical change during mastication. 
But when they come in contact with the gastric juice in the 
stomach, their digestion commences. The juice contains two 
active ingredients, an acid or a mixture of acids, together with a 
neutral nitrogenous substance called pepsin. 

This pepsin is an unorganised digestive ferment ; by its aid, if 
acid be present and the temperature be suitable (about 98^), 
albuminoids are all converted into the peptones, described on p. 44. 
These are all soluble in water, and are not removed from the solu- 
tion by acids, alkalies, or salts ; they are all soluble, even in alcohol, 
if not very strong ; and they are diffusible. Animal casein before 
it becomes a peptone, is curdled ; legumin is rapidly changed 
and dissolved even by gastric juice deprived of its pepsin. Fibrin, 
whether animal or vegetable, as the gluten-fibrin of wheat grain, 
is rapidly broken up by the gastric juice, swelling up, and finally 
becoming a ropy, opaline liquid. Albumen, when soluble, is 
transformed into peptones without bemg previously curdled by 


the gastric juice ; when insoluble, it is more slowly acted upon. 
The conversion of albuminoid nutrients into peptones, which can 
be absorbed into the circulation, is completed in the small 
intestine, where the pancreatic secretion is the active agent of 

Little is known about the digestion and uses of gelatin and 
allied compounds. It is, however, certain that solution of gelatin, 
after having been acted upon by gastric juice, is peptonised, and 
no longer solidifies to a jelly on cooling. Before these com- 
pounds can enter the circulation, they must be altered, since 
when introduced into the blood artificially they are excreted 
unchanged. So the formation of gelatin-peptone and chondrin- 
peptone by the peptonising action of the digestive ferments 
may be accepted as a fact. What we do not yet completely 
know is the nature of the nutritive functions performed by 
derivatives of the osseids ; that they are incapable of wholly 
replacing the true peptones is, however, certain. 

The range of composition of the several nitrogenous nutrients 
is shown in the following table, where the weights of the carbon, 
hydrogen, nitrogen, sulphur, and oxygen in loo parts are 
given : — 

Carbon --...-.- 50*8 to 54-5 

Hydrogen 6*9 to T^ 

Nitrogen 14*5 to 18*4 

Sulphur 06 to 2*o 

Oxygen - 209 to 23*5 

With regard to gelatin and chondrin it may be said that they 
probably contain, when quite pure, no sulphur. In both the 
percentage of carbon just exceeds 50, but while gelatin contains 
1 8 "3 per cent, of nitrogen, chondrin shows only 14*5. 

The actual weight of carbon in i lb. of any average albuminoid 
may be set down as 8 oz. 245 gr. Before considering what 
amount of work or actual energy this carbon and the hydrogen 
present correspond to, it would be as well to state the various 


uses to which the albuminoids are put in the human body. For 
they serve — 

1st. For the building up and repair of the nitrogenous tissues of the body, 
especially of the basis of flesh, that is, muscular tissue. As no other 
ingredient of food can fulfil this office, it is light that the albuminoids 
should bear the expressive name of flesh-formers. 

2nd. The albuminoids contain lo per cent, more carbon than starch and 
sugar, and some part at least, though never the whole, of this carbon 
is available as a source of heat and work in the body, especially when 
the supply of the usual heat-givers is deficient. 

3rd. The albuminoids serve for the formation of a large number of nitrogenous 
substances which are found in most parts of the body, but especially in 
brain and nerve-substance. These compounds are rich in nitrogen, and 
sometimes contain sulphur and phosphorus as well. 

4th. The albuminoids may contribute fat to the body. It is easy to obtain 
artificially the main constituents of fat by the action of chemical agents 
upon the albuminoids, compounds rich in nitrogen being formed at the 
same time : similar changes occur in the body. 

The variety of offices performed by the albuminoids, when 
compared with the carbon compounds called heat-givers, which 
have been studied in the preceding section, is due in part to their 
complex character. This complexity arises from two causes — 
for these compounds are made up of 5 different elements instead 
of 3, while a very much larger number of atomic proportions of 
their elements are present than is the case with starch— probably 
several hundreds, instead of 21. But another reason for the 
variety of uses to which the albuminoids are put in the body 
arises from the presence of nitrogen, an element which confers a 
character of instability, of proneness to change, upon most of the 
compounds of which it forms part. The processes of life and 
growth, as well as of putrefaction and decay, occur in and through 
the presence of nitrogen compounds. 

There is no need to enlarge further now upon the ist, 3rd. 
and 4th items of service named in the foregoing list as rendered 
by the albuminoids. But it may be useful if we introduce here a 
few remarks as to the relation of the albuminoids to the per- 
formance of work. It used to be thought that work — hard bodily 



exertion, as in ascending a mountain, in pedestrian feats, or in 
hammering iron — was done by the actual destruction of muscular 
substance itself. If this be true, we ought to find the proof of 
that destruction of muscle in an excessive excretion of the waste 
nitrogenous product known as urea, which is got rid of by the 
kidneys. But this is not the case, the excretion of urea not 
corresponding in amount to the work done. Yet during the per- 
formance of hard work an ample supply of albuminoids is found 
to be needed, but it must be accompanied by an increased quan- 
tity of the carbonaceous nutrients, particularly of fat or oil. 

As to the function oi nitrogenous matter in furnishing supplies 
of heat, and, therefore, of actual energy to the body, we have to 
remark that Dr. Frankland has experimented with pure albumen. 
Burnt in oxygen it set free an amount of heat which may be 
expressed in this way : — i lb. of this nitrogen-compound, during 
complete oxidation, liberates an amount of heat corresponding to 

Ions raised i ft. high. 

Albumen • t • 1 . • . . 2,643 

At first sight it would seem from this number that the albu- 
minoids are more efficient force-producers (when so used in the 
body) than most of the true heat-givers, whose main office it is to 
furnish heat and energy to the system. But a special deduction 
must be made from these figures, for when nitrogenous matters 
are oxidized ifi the body^ a small portion of the carbon and hy- 
drogen which they contain is carried away, with its potential 
energy unexpended, in the urea, etc., formed in the organism and 
excreted by the kidneys and intestine. Now, by determining the 
amount of potential energy remaining in that amount of urea 
which I lb. of albumen may be assumed to yield, Frankland 
concluded that a deduction of one-seventh must be made from 
the above number. Thus the available heat set free from the 
oxidation of i lb. of albuminoid matter within the body cor- 
responds to 2,266 tons raised i ft. high^ not to 2,643 ^o^s« 


Albumen, then, ranks between starch and sugar as a heat-giver 
and force-producer. Later results, obtained by means of two 
distinct methods of experiment, lead to the same conclusion as to 
the dynamic value of the albuminoids as compared with starch and 
sugar. But the values for these substances having been shown to 
be higher than those found by Frankland, we may accept 2,860 
foot-tons as the average number for i lb. of albuminoid. It may 
be well to remind our readers once more that only about one-fifth 
of this energy ^t the utmost can be available for work outside the 
body (see p. 41). 

§8— A Day's Ration. 

Thus far we have considered the uses of food, the composition 
of the human body, and the several compounds which are neces- 
sary for its nutrition. Let us now go on to study, in its simplest 
outline, a day's ration — its composition, its work, and the changes 
which it undergoes in the body. 

The daily supply of food and the daily waste of the human 
body have been often made the subject of experiment. It will 
be understood at once that even with healthy adults the amount 
of food required will vary according to many circumstances. To 
begin with, there are peculiarities belonging to each individual ; 
then there are differences in the amount of work performed ; the 
heat or cold of the weather, as well as the condition and quality 
of the several kinds of food taken— all these things will influence 
the total quantity of food required in the twenty-four hours, as 
well as the proportions of the chief components which it should 
contain. But we may arrive at something like an average daily 
diet by taking the case of an adult man in good health, weighing 
154 Id., and measuring 5 feet 8 inches in height. Simply to 
maintain his body, without loss or gain in weight, his ration of 
maintenance, or food, during the twenty-four hours should, under 

£ 2 



ordinary conditions, contain at least something like the following 
proportions and quantities of its main ingredients :— 

The Average Daily Diet for an Adult should contain— 


loo parts. 

Each 24 hours. 

Water ------ 


lb. oz. gr. 

5 8 320 

Albuminoids .... 


4 no 

Starch, sugar, etc. - . . 


II 17S 

Fat - . - » . - 


3 337 

Commcn salt . - . - 



Phosphates, potash salts, etc. 



On adding the figures of the second column together it will 
be seen that the total daily ration is here assumed to weigh 
(meat and drink included) 6 lb. 13 oz. 128 gr. Of this amount 
I lb. 4 oz. 245 gr. is actual dry food substance, the remainder, 
more than 5^ lb., being water. In reality, the weight of dry 
food substance eaten will exceed that just named, chiefly for the 
following reason. We eat our food in the shape of a number 
of mixed animal and vegetable products, which contain many 
ingredients besides the water, albuminoids, starch, sugar, fat, and 
mineral salts named above. There is, for instance, always some 
fibrous material, called cellulose and lignose, in the parts of plants 
on which we live ; there are also present other substances, as 
colouring matters, which have little or no feeding value. These 
are excluded from the above table, but always present in our 
food. Even in animal food, materials like membranes, con- 
nective tissues, and gelatin are present ; but these are not to 
be regarded as essential or necessary components* of a daily 
ration, as their use in nourishing the body is limited and 

This seems the proper place to give an example of an actual 
dietary — that is, to show what amounts of common articles of 



food must be taken each day in order to furnish the body with 
its average supply of necessary ah'ment. Were we to mix the 
■pure water, albumen, starch, fat, and salts, shown in our table, 
together, even in the right proportions, the mixture would not be 
a perfect food, for it would be \\ anting in at least one particular — 
it would not be pleasant in taste. Our food should be palatable, 
that we may eat it with relish and get the greatest nourishment 
from it. The flavour and texture of food — its taste, in fact — 
stimulate the production of those secretions— such as the saliva 
and the gastric juice — by the action of which the food is digested 
or dissolved, and becomes finally a part of the body, or is 
assimilated. Too much stress must not be laid upon this argu- 
ment, for experiment has proved that during short periods a very 
simple and monotonous diet has sufficed for all the needs of the 
body, and has been fully utilised therein even when it has been 
eaten with difficulty. But, in general, as it will be allowed that food 
should be relished, it is desirable that it should be varied in 
character — it should neither be restricted to vegetable products on 
the one hand, nor to animal substances (including milk and eggs) 
on the other. By due admixture of these, and by varying 
occasionally the kind of vegetable or meat taken, or the modes of 
cooking adopted, the necessary constituents of a diet are fur- 
nished more cheaply, and at the same time do more efficiently 
their proper work. Now, if we were to confine ourselves to 
wheaten bread, we should be obliged to eat, in order to obtain 
our daily supply of albuminoids, or '' flesh-formers," nearly 4 lb. 
— an amount which would give us just 32 ounces of the starchy 
matters which should accompany the 4^ ounces of albuminoids 
— or, in other words, it would supply not more than the necessary 
daily allowance of nitrogen^ but about one and a half times the 
necessary daily allowance of carbon in the form of starch. Now, 
animal food is generally richer in albuminoid or nitrogenous 
constituents than vegetable food ; so by mixing lean meat with 
our bread, we may get a food in which the constituents corre- 



spond better to our requirements ; for 2 lb. of bread may be 
substituted 12 oz. of meat, and yet all the necessary carbon 
as well as nitrogen be thereby supplied. As such a substitution 
is often too expensive, owing to the high price of meat, cheese, 
which is from one and a half times to twice as rich in nitrogenous 
matters (that is flesh-formers) as butchers' meat, may be, and 
constantly is, employed with bread as a complete diet, and for 
persons in health, doing hard bodily work, it affords suitable 
nourishment. Even some vegetable products, rich in nitrogen, 
as haricot beans, may be used in the same way as meat or cheese, 
and for the same purpose. 

Such a mixed daily diet as we have been referring to might 
be furnished by the following foods if consumed in the quantities 
here given : — 






Bread - 
Butter - 
Bacon - 
Cheese - 
Sugar - 









10. Water, alone, and in Tea, 
Coffee, Beer - 

Altogetfter these quan- 
tities will contain about 
I Id. $^ oz. of dry sub- 
stance^ though they wei^h 
in a'l 6 lb. 14^^ oz. 

It will be seen that the weight of this daily ration exceeds 
by I oz.— even when the solid matter contained in beverages 
is omitted— that given before (on p. 52); this excess is mainly 
owing to the fact, previously mentioned, that in all articles of food 
actually used there are small quantities of matters (cellulose, etc.) 
which cannot be reckoned as having a real feeding value. And 
it must not be forgotten that the several common proximate 
principles which can and do supply the greater part of the heat 
of the body have not all the same value •for such a purpose. Of 
starch and dextrin we should require rather less than of sugar for 


the production of the same amount of heat and energy, while 
I oz. of fat or oil will go as far as 2 ^ oz. of starch. This allows 
of much variation in our daily food, since we may replace, to a 
certain extent, a portion of the fat in our rations by its equivalent 
quantity of starch or dextrin or sugar — or we may diminish the 
starch and increase the fat. In the former case the dry substance 
of our food might come to weigh 4 to 5 oz. more than the 
2oi^ oz. mentioned before; in the latter case it would weigh 

Suppose, for instance, we were to take, daily, no more than 
25^ oz, of fat in any form, we should have to add about lyz oz. 
of starch or sugar to compensate for this reduction, thus con- 
suming nearly 14 oz. of the latter instead of 11^. 

Here it may be asked — " Which of the articles of the above 
mixed diet give the several components of food which we require 
each day ? " A sufficient answer to this inquiry may be gained 
by referring to the composition of the several articles of food 
named, as given in this Guide. Here it will be enough to state 
that the bread consumed supplies chiefly starch, but along with 
this a good deal of albuminoid substance; the milk gives fat, 
albuminoids, and a kind of sugar, having nearly the same value 
as starch ; the cheese contains much fat and albuminoid sub. 
stance ; the bacon and butter furnish chiefly fat ; while the other 
articles in the list either give further supplies of these food- 
components, or else the mineral matter or salts which are 
required. The first seven articles in the list will likewise contain 
about I lb. 6^ oz. of water, which, with that supplied in various 
beverages, will furnish the 5 lb. 8^ oz. daily necessary. 

The quantities of the several nutrients set down in the tabular 
statement on p. 52 as required in a day's ration must not be 
taken as admitting of no variation beyond the substitution, already 
explained, of starch and other carbohydrates for fat or oil. A 
considerable latitude is permissible, both as to the total amounts, 
and as to the relative proportions. Different authorities, there- 


fore, give figures for a standard ration for the normal ad alt man, 
which vary within rather wide limits. This variation is in- 
dependent of that far more important one, which is caused by 
the amount of work done or of energy expended externally. It 
may be attributed in part to individual or racial peculiarities, in 
part to the different vegetable and animal products which furnish 
the several nutrients, and in part to the power possessed by certain 
nutrients of fulfilling at least some of the offices naturally per- 
taining to others. Then, too, the influence of external tempera- 
ture, and of dry or moist air, must not be neglected in this 
connection. It is found, for example, that the water taken may 
be considerably diminished or increased ; that the albuminoids 
may be reduced to 3 J^ oz. or raised to 5 oz. provided that, in the 
former case, the fat be augmented, or, in the latter case, be lowered. 
So, if an excess of common salt be consumed, then the potash 
salts must receive a commensurate addition. The subject is 
important, but it need not be further dwelt upon here as it will 
be discussed in Part V., the first section of which is devoted to 
" Diet and Dietaries." 

Before considering different foods and dietaries, it will be as 
well if we now pay some attention to the waste of the body. We 
will endeavour to answer the question : What becomes of our 
food after it has been digested and assimilated, and has done its 
work in our bodies ? We have seen what is the amount, and 
what the composition of the daily in-goings, or food ; let us see 
what is the amount and the nature of the out-goings, or waste. 
Before we can make any comparison, we must recur for a moment 
to the general nature of the final change which food undergoes 
in the body. That change, we have before shown, is in the main 
one of burning, or, as it called in chemical language, oxidation. 
It is the uniting of certain elements contained in the food — chiefly 
carbon and hydrogen — with oxygen, brought into the lungs by the 
act of breathing. The air, then, is, in a sense, part of our food, 
and forms a large part of the daily in-come of the body. As the 



oxygen taken in unites with the carbon and hydrogen of the food, 
we must not expect to find that the proximate principles consti- 
tuting the main mass of our daily food will be found in any 
quantity in the daily waste. How then can we compare the 
in-goings and the out-goings ? Why, by considering the amounts 
of the chief elements of which the proximate principles consist, 
and comparing them with the amounts of the same elements which 
are discharged in the oxidized waste of the body. In accordance 
with this way of representing the facts, we now give in a tabular 
form the daily supply and waste of the human body. First, we 
set down the weight of the several elements which make up the 
necessary daily food as given in the table on p. 52 : — 

Daily Supply, 







Oxygen taken from the air breathed - 




Oxygen in starch, albuminoids, and fat 





Total oxygen 


Carbon in fat, starch, albuminoids • 



Hydrogen in the same . . . , 



Nitrogen in albuminoids .... 


Common salt 


Phosphates, potash salts, etc. 






Total daily suppl] 





It will be here seen that four elements only are set down in the 
separate form as elements in the above table. These are oxygen, 
carbon, hydrogen, and nitrogen, so far as these elements enter 
into the composition of, that is, form part of, the proximate prin- 
ciples which we consume as our food, and which we change into 
new compounds in the body. The salt and other minerals of the 
food, together with the water we consume, are not so changed, 
and therefore these substances are not assumed to be resolved 
into their elements in the table of Daily Supply, nor in that which 
follows, representing 


Daily Waste. 

n • .1, 1 • -J • lb. o«. gr. lb. OS. gi. 

Oxygen in the carbonic acid gas given out by the 

lungs • - I 7 325 

Oxygen in the carbonic acid gas given out by the 

skin - - - - O o III 

Oxygen in the organic matter given out by the kid- 
neys and intestine 00 357 

Oxygen in the water formed in the body - - - o 9 130 

Total oxygen in viraste - - -- •• ^247 

Carbon in the carbonic acid gas given out by the 

lungs o 8 320 

Carbon in the carbonic acid gas given out by the 

skin - - - - - - - -00 40 

Carbon in the organic matter given out by the 

kidneys -00 170 

Caibon in the organic matter given out by the in- 
testine 00 308 

Total carbon in waste O 9 400 

Hydrogen in the water formed in the body, and 

given out by the lungs and skin • - - o 1 70 

Hydrogen in the organic compounds given out by 

the kidneys and intestine 00 100 

Total hydrogen found in the water formed, 

and in the organic matter of the waste - O I 170 

Nitrogen in urea and other waste given out by the 
kidneys ...... 

Nitrogen in waste given out by the intestine 
Total nitrogen in waste 

Common salt given out by the skin . • 

Common salt given out by the kidneys 
Total common salt in waste . 

Phosphates and potash salts given out by the kidneys 

Water taken in as such, and given out by the lungs, 
skin, kidneys, and intestine, in addition to that 
formed in the body 

Total daily waste - - • • - 8 7 410 

These figures, then, represent the daily balance-sneet of the 
income and expenditure of a human body — not exactly and per- 
fectly, but with a sufficiently near approach to truth. During the 
changes, mainly of oxidation, or burning, which are shown by the 
new compounds found in the waste and not in the supply, it is 









8 320 


calculated that an amount of energy is available, in one form or 
another of heat or mechanical work, which may be expressed as 
4,297 tons raised i ft. high. Of course, where a more liberal 
ration is given and much harder work done, the number of fcot- 
tons of energy may be much greater. This will be indicated by 
the greater quantity of oxygen absorbed and used — this may 
amount to 2 lb. 4 oz. per diem — or even more, instead of i lb. 
\oy^ oz. only. 

Let us briefly restate the main facts concerning the food of 
man which we have been discussing in the preceding pages. 

1. Food is required to increase or repair the materials of the 
body ; to keep it warm, and to endow it with a renewal of working 

2. The materials of the human body are arranged in many 
compound substances. These are made up of 16 elements; the 
same elements, generally arranged in similar compounds, being 
found in food. 

3. Food substances, or nutrients, fall into two groups— the in- 
combustible or oxidized, and the combustible or oxidizable. 
Water and salts belong to the former; starch, sugar, fat, and 
compounds like the albumen of eggs, to the latter. 

4. Incombustible nutrients serve several purposes, forming a 
permanent part of the body, and also acting as a means of 
carrying on the processes of nutrition. 

5. Combustible nutrients are burnt more or less completely 
within the body by means of the oxygen taken into the lungs. 
The power of doing work, or potential energy, stored up in these 
nutrients and in the oxygen, is thus changed into the actual 
energy of heat and mechanical power. Thus the warmth of the 
body is maintained, and work, both internal and external, is 

6. Combustible nutrients increase or replace the fat, muscle, 
etc., of the body. 

7. The daily waste and work of the body must be met by a 


daily supply of nutrients in the daily ration of food. In an adult 
the supply and waste are equal in amount, but different in the 
nature of the compounds, though identical if the elements are 

8. The daily ration must contain the various nutrients required 
in due proportions of albuminoids, starch, etc., plus the starch- 
equivalent of the fat, saline matter, and water. The ratio may be 
expressed thus : — 

Water. Albuminoids. Starch and Fat as Starch. Salts. 

25 : li : 4l : i 

9. But the most important ratio amongst the nutrients of the 
daily food is that between the albuminoids or "flesh-formers," 
and the carbohydrates plus the fat reckoned as starch, or " heat- 
givers." This relationship is often called the "nutrient-ratio.** 
In the standard dietary adopted in the preceding pages the 
nutrient-ratio is i : 4^. In other words, for one ounce of albumi- 
noids present in the daily food, there should be 4^ ounces of 
starch, sugar, dextrin, gum, mucilage, etc. — the starch-equivalent 
of the fat being added to make up this quantity. 

10. For the sake of making a rough comparison between 
various foods, it is a convenient plan to add together the per- 
centages of albuminoids, starch, dextrin, and sugar, and the starch- 
equivalent of any fat present. The sum of these constituents is 
called the "nutrient-value"; this value is that of 100 parts (100 
grains, 100 ounces, 100 pounds, as the case may be) of the foods 
in question. 


Although repeated reference has been made already to different 
vegetable products, we have not given as yet any account of the 
chemical composition of particular kinds of plants, or of those 
parts of plants used for human food. But as the compounds 
which make up nearly the whole of every vegetable have been 
described, and their respective uses as nutrients discussed, the 
way has been cleared for the study of some of the most im- 
portant actual foods, such as wheat, peas, cabbage, and turnips. 
The review of these vegetable foods having been completed, 
foods of animal origin — milk, cheese, eggs, bacon, and butchers* 
meat — will also be described in Part III. from a chemical point 
of view. And then in Part IV. will be given some account of 
the composition and characteristics of alcoholic liquors, tea, to- 
bacco, and various condiments and spices — of the accompani- 
ments of food or "food-adjuncts," as we have named them. 

§ I. — The Cereals. 

Naturally we give the first place to the breadstuffs — wheat, 
oats, rice, and other grains — the fruit of certain plants belonging 
to the Grass Order, or Graviinacecz, 


French, Blk. German, Weizen, Italian, Frumento, 

{Triticum vtdgate.) 

Wheat is an annual grass, of unknown origin. Numerous 
varieties of it are now in cultivation in nearly all temperate 


countries. It flourishes between the parallels of 25 and 60 
degrees of latitude. It is more extensively grown in the northern 
than in the southern hemisphere. 

There are nearly 200 named varieties of wheat, but in 
many cases the distinctions between them are very slight. The 
most important differences are those which refer to the composition 
of the grain ; but it will be found that these do not always agree 
with the outward characters of the grain or the ear. Wheats are 
generally characterised by some such terms as the following : Red 
or white, in reference to the colour of the grain \ bearded or 
beardless, this is with or without an awn; winter or summer, 
the former being sown in autumn, the latter in spring; soft or 
hard, the soft wheats being tender and floury, the hard being 
tough, firm, and horn-like in appearance. This last distinction is 
ihe most important, as it corresponds to a real difference of 
chemical constituents and of feeding value. We shall recur to 
this point presently. 

The average yield of an acre of land should be about 30 
bushels of wheat grain, the bushel weighing 60 lb. In wet seasons 
the weight of a bushel of wheat grain may be as low as 551b. ; 
while in good years it may rise to 641b. A plump, rounded, white 
smooth grain, without wrinkles, gives the heaviest weight per 
bushel. Wheat grain varies in specific gravity between 1*29 and 
1*41, the harder and more translucent wheats being the denser. 
The proportion of grain to straw is greatest in dry years — perhaps 
the average may be stated as 4 to 10. 

The composition of wheat grain shows some variations, but 
they are mainly limited to the relative proportions of starch and 
nitrogenous matters. Soft, white, and tender varieties of wheat, 
consisting entirely of opaque grains, may not contain more than 
8 or 9 per cent, albuminoids ; while hard and translucent sorts, 
such as those grown for the manufacture of macaroni, have been 
found to contain as much as i8 or 20 per cent. ; the starch in 
these latter grams being proportionately reduced. But differences 



in the composition of wheat grain show themselves with the same 
variety of wheat, when it has been grown under different con- 
ditions, in fine, dry seasons the starch being increased and the 
albuminoids diminished, and the reverse being the case in wet 
summers. Even in the grains from a single ear, the same differ- 
ences may be often seen — analysis showing sometimes 4 per 
cent, more albuminoids in some of such grains than in others. 

It is difficult to fix upon a set of figures which shall fairly 
represent the average composition of wheat grain. But the 
following analysis may be taken as showing the proportions of the 
main constituents in a good sample of white English wheat : — 

Composition of Wheat. 

In ICO parts. 

Water 14*5 

Albuminoids, etc. 1 1 'O 

Starch, with traces of dextrin and sugar • 69*0 
Fat • . 1*2 

Cellulose - • • • • • 2 "6 

Mineral matter, or ash • ••17 














According to this analysis, wheat contains i part of albumi- 
noids to 61^ parts of digestible carbohydrates and oil, reckoned 
as starch. This ratio is often called the "nutrient-ratio," and 
for brevity's sake will be so called in the pages that follow. 
If we add together the percentages of starch, of albuminoids, and 
of oil and sugar converted into their equivalents of starch, we 
Arrive at the "nutrient-value" of 100 parts of a food such as 
vheat. If the above analysis be so treated this figure will be 
found to be 82. If we assume that all the albuminoid matter 
present could be so used, not more than i ^ oz. of the dry nitro- 
genous substance of muscle or flesh could be produced from i lb. 
of wheat grain, such as is represented by the above analysis. The 
long, hard, translucent wheats grown in some of the hotter parts 
of Europe, might furnish twice as much flesh-forming material 
from an equal weight of grain. Macaroni, vermicelli, pates 

64 WHEA T. 

d*Italie, and similar preparations are made from highly nitro- 
genous wheats. 

On account of the large imports of Indian wheat into this 
country, it may be useful to introduce in this place an analysis 
showing its average composition. It will be noticed that Indian 
wheat contains less water and more nitrogenous matter than home- 
grown wheat. 

Average Composition of Indian Wheat. 

T_ ,-^ ».„_»^ in I lb. 

In loo parts. ^^^ ^^ 

Water 12-5 ... 2 o 

Albuminoids - - - • - -13 '5 ••• 2 70 

Starch, with traces of dextrin and sugar - 684 ... 10 413 

Oil 1*2 ... o 84 

Cellulose 27 ... o 189 

Mineral matter - - - • • "1*7 ... o 119 

The nutrient-ratio is here i : 5*2 ; the nutrient- value 84'6. 
Further particulars regarding Indian wheat will be found in my 
" Food Grains of India," pp. 90 to 98. It may be added that 
millers generally find it expedient to add some starchy cold- 
country wheat to the highly nitrogenous grains fiom India. 

Some notion of the importance of wheat as a food staple in 
this country may be formed from the following figures. In 1901 
there were imported into the United Kingdom great quantities 
of wheat from foreign countries and from our colonies and India, 
in order to supplement the home-grown produce. The tabular 
statement which follows shows the amounts in hundredweights ; — 

Home-Grown and Imported Wheat. 


Home-Grown - • - - - - 28,920,000 

United States 40,466,300 

British India 3,341,500 

Argentine Republic . - . - . 8,080,400 

British North America 6,691,710 

Chili — 

Germany 594,700 

Australasia ------- 6,820,800 


In 1890, however, the wheat imports from Russia were 
19,389,000, while those from the United States did not exceed 
17,201,000 cwts. It should be remembered that large quantities 
of wheat meal and flour also reach this country from abroad, not 
less than 22,576,430 cwts. arriving in 1901. 

There are several reasons why the gnun of wheat is preferred 
to that of other cereal grasses for use as food. The grain is 
easily separated from the palece. or chaff, which do not adhere to 
it as in the case of barley, oats, rice, etc. Then the > yield of 
fine white flour, when wheat is ground in the mill, is very large. 
Wheaten flour, too, is readily made into a light and spongy bread, 
for it contains a large percentage of that characteristic elastic 
albuminoid which is called gluten. The chemical constituents of 
the wheat grain are likewise so proportioned as to render this 
food well fitted for the general sustenance of man, both as regards 
its flesh-forming, its heat and force-producing, and its bone- 
forming quality. 


Wheat grain is nearly always prepared by some mechanical 
process or other before it is eaten as human food. FrumiLy, 
however, once popular in England, and still occasionally seen in 
Yorkshire, was made from whole wheat grains soaked in water 
and then boiled in milk. By grinding wheat between millstones 
mealis produced ; and this, by sifting, winnowing, and re-grinding, 
is separated into a number of mill-products differing, not only in 
the size of the particles of which they are made up, but also 
in their chemical composition. To understand this we must 
examine the structure of the wheat grain, which is in reality a 
fruit, consisting of a seed and its coverings. All the middle part 
of the grain is occupied by large thin cells full of a powdery sub- 
stance, which is nearly white and opaque in soft wheats. This 
part contains much starch — indeed, nearly all the starch of ihe 
grain. Outside the central starchy mass is a single row of squarish 


cells, filled with a yellowish material very rich in nitrogenous 
matters, and also containing much oil and mineral matter. The 
embryo, chit, or germ, is still richer (than the above-named row 
of square cells) in nutritive matters, notably in oil, in potash, in 
phosphates, and in nitrogenous compounds. There are six thin 
coverings or coats to the wheat grain; these contain much 
cellulose and mineral matter. It should be added that the outer- 
most coat of the above-named six coats is the least valuable, and 
in some processes of milling is removed by a previous operation. 
In Child's " Decorticator " for example, this thin bran, together 
with the germ of the grain, is first of all removed. In the process 
of Mege Mouries, also, this thin and poor outer coat is removed, 
but by a different plan — the grain being first damped and then 
rubbed. What then will be the effect of grinding upon grain 
having the structure just described ? Grinding may be described 
as a process in which squeezes and blows are united. In pressing 
or squeezing wheat you may powder the interior, and yet not 
break up the exterior part ; by blows you may divide the grain 
into a number of small fragments — a coarse meal, in which the 
white central portion of the grain is not reduced to powder. 
Now there are several modes of milling or grinding wheat, differ- 
ing mainly in the preponderance of one or other of these two 
actions of squeezing and cracking. By alterations in the distance 
between the stones, and by differences in the modes of scoring 
them, as well as in their direction and rate of motion, mill- 
products of different qualities are obtainable. 

The general employment of rollers of steel or of hard porcelain 
has also greatly changed the milling process, and the character 
and variety of the products. The methods of " high-milling," as 
' it is called, have indeed become so complicated that it would be 
impossible to describe, within the limits of space at our disposal, 
the scores of operations, including many re-grindings and siftings, 
to which the grain is submitted. But it may prove interesting 
and instructive if we endeavour to give, in a condensed form, an 


outline of a method of milling intermediate in complexity between 
the old and new systems. 

The meal designated here as No. 2) obtained by grinding the 
wheat (No. i) with mill-stones, is separated, by means of silk- 
gauze dressing machines, into five products (Nos. 3 to 7), called 
respectively, flour, middlings, coarse middlings, pollard, and bran. 
The middlings (No. 4) are then further separated by means of a 
dressing machine, called the Purifier, into three products (Nos. 8, 
9, and 10), called respectively, semolina, fine sharps, and coarse 
sharps. The semolina (No. 8 is so called by millers), after 
having been crushed once, twice, or even thrice, between steel 
rollers, or between the hard porcelain rollers invented by Weg- 
mann, is separated, by means of a centrifugal fine silk dressing 
machine, into three products (Nos. 11, 12, and 13), called respec- 
tively, fine flour, seconds flour, and sharps. A chemical analysis 
of each of the above products as obtained from a quantity of a 
mixed wheat was made. The results, so far as they are necessary 
for comparison, are given in the annexed table : — 

Percentage CoMrosiTiON of Mill-products from a Wheat. 





a. Original meal 


• • • 

2 02 



• •• 


3. Flour - 

I '61 

• •• 

I '40 

' • • 


• • • 


II. Fine flour - 


• •• 


■ • • 


• • • 


12. Seconds flour 


• •• 

I 82 

* • • 


• • • 


4. Fine middlings 

2 07 

• • « 


• • ■ 


• • ■ 


5. Coarse middlings 2*37 

• • • 




• • • 


6. Pollard 


• •• 


• • • 


• •« 


7. Bran - 


• • • 


• • • 


• • • 


8. Semolina - 

2 '02 

• • • 


• • t 


• • • 

I -06 

9. Fine sharps 

2 '07 

• •• 


• • • 

I -02 

« • • 

I '40 

10. Coarse sharps 


• •• 


• • • 


• •« 


13. Sharps 


• • • 

3 'SO 

• • • 


• • • 


These results may be briefly summarised thus : The 2 grades 
of fine flour (Nos. 3 and 11) contain least nitrogen, least fat, and 
least ash or mineral matters. The seconds flour (No. 12) shows a 
slight superiority over the two finer grades of flour in all three items. 

F 2 


The coarse middlings (No. 5) contains most nitrogen and mosl 
fat. The fine sharps, the coarse sharps, and the sharps (Nos. 
9, 10, 13), which are by-products not further operated upon, are 
richer in nitrogen, in fat, and in mineral matter than any of the 
grades of flour, while none of them contains an excessive pro- 
portion of fibre. On the other hand, the two remaining final 
products, pollard and bran (Nos. 6 and 7), contain most fibre 
and most ash, along with a good proportion of nitrogen and fat. 

In order, however, to form a just judgment as to relative 
richness in the important nutrients (other than starch) present in 
the various mill-products of wheat, it is necessary to look a little 
more closely ipto the above percentages. We need not discuss 
the quantities of fat or oil and of ash or mineral matter, for there 
can be no doubt of the nature and value of the fat or oil, while 
analysis of the ash of the several products shows that the amount of 
phosphates or " bone-formers " is largest in those products which 
give the highest percentage of ash. But the case is not so clear 
with respect to the nitrogen. There is no question that some of 
this nitrogen is not in the form of albuminoids, or what have been 
called "flesh-formers." We will therefore select for further 
scrutiny three products, namely. No. 3, flour ; No. 9, fine sharps ; 
and No. 13, sharps. These numbers have been chosen as re- 
presenting products which contain the lowest percentage . of 
nitrogen, the highest, and an intermediate percentage. By 
suitable methods the actual percentages of true albuminoids in 
these three grades have been ascertained. In the following table 
they are given as compared with the percentages calculated from 
the total nitrogen : — 

True Alouminoids from -niffor^n^. 

Albuminoids. total Nitrogen. i^inerencs. 

Flour (No. 3) - - . 8-96 ... 10-14 ... -I -18 
Fine sharps (No. 9) - - li'86 ... 13*04 ... -I'lS 
Sharps (No. 13) . - 1338 ... 16-44 ... -3*06 

Th« true albuminoids are here rather under-estimated in all 
three cases ; but it is quite clear, from the above analyses, tliat 


those mill-products which contain the larger percentages of total 
nitrogen do also contain larger percentages of true albuminoids. 
True, the proportion of albuminoids does not rise pari passu with 
the nitrogen ; but it is safe to affirm that sharps, middlings, and 
even pollard and bran, do always contain a considerably higher 
percentage of true albuminoids than fine flour made from the 
same meal. This conclusion is abundantly confirmed by a large 
number of analyses, for which we have no space here, of these 
coarser and more coloured mill-products. Further on, in dis 
cussing the question of bread, more will be said as to these 
materials which we so commonly reject for use as human food. 
Here it must suffice to mention that the albuminoids of the 
coarser products do not include so large a proportion of gluten as 
do those of the finer. 

In the gradual grinding and purification of the grits lies the 
essence of high or grits milling. It has one advantage at least 
over the old system, in which the grinding is done at first and 
once for all, and this consists in the absence, or comparative 
absence, of the heating of the products which may injure the 
properties of the gluten in the flour for bread-making. 

The particular series of mill-products, of which we have just 
given some analytical details, were made up of the following 
percentages : — 

Flours (Nos. 3, II, and 12) - • • • • - • 73'0 
Pollard and bran (Nos. 6 and 7) - - - - - -17*0 

Fine sharps and sharps (Nas. 9 and 13) 2*5 

Coarse middlings and coarse sharps (Nos. $ and 10) • • 4*5 
[Loss •-•••*.>.«> 3*0] 

The yield of flour was below the average, and that of offals 
above. In a good cereal year the numbers are : — 

Flours 75'0 

Offals •-.•••.•• .. 22*5 
[Loss 2*5] 

To these particulars we may add that the fine middlings 


(No. 4), when separated in the Purifier, yields 77 per cent, of 
No. 8, 15 per cent of No. 9, and 8 per cent, of No. 10. When 
the semoHna (No. 8) is rolled and re-dressed, it yields 60 per cent, 
of No. II, 20 per cent, of No. 12, and 20 per cent, of No. 13. 

In the old process of milling the wheat meal is produced 
in one grinding, and is then separated into three or more different 
products. In some flour mills the separation of the various 
qualities is far more thoroughly carried out than in others. The 
following is a classified list of the chief products of a flour mill, 
with the average quantities of each product obtained from 100 lb. 
of good white wheat ; the loss amounts to 5 lb., but this consists 

partly of evaporated moisture. 


{I. Finest flour ---»-. --42 
2. Seconds flour 18 
3. Biscuit flour r . 9 
4. Tails, or tailings ----••- 3 
5. Middlings, or fine sharps 8 

I 6. Coarse sharps --•... 3 

Bran < ?• Fine pollard - - 3 

J 8. Coarse pollard - 6 

^9. Long bran --.•.•-.3 

It must be recollected that the above quantities are merely 
given as rough approximations, while the names applied vary in 
different parts of the country and in different mills. The first 
three qualities, or wires^ for instance, are often sold together as 
** fine flour," while the quantity of this product is further raised 
(to 80 per cent, of the wheat taken) by re-dressing the tailings 
and re-grinding the middUngs — which latter may be said to form 
a kind of link between flour and bran. There are some mills 
where only three different degrees of fineness are recognised — 
flour, middlings, and bran. 

There are two parts of the wheat grain which, in various 
milling-processes, are often removed. One of these is the germ, 
the other is the outermost coat of the grain. The germ is re- 
moved in roller-milling, because its presence tends to discolour 


the flour, and gives it a marked tendency, especially when kept 
under unfavourable conditions, to acquire a rancid taste and 
odour. That the exclusion of the germ is to be regretted on 
dietetic grounds is evident when its singular richness in oil, in 
nitrogenous matters, and in phosphoric acid, is considered. The 
following analysis was made on a pure sample of flattened germs 
from a roller-mill ; — 

In 100 parts. 


Albuminoids, diastase, etc. • 

Starch, with some dextrin and maltose 

Fat or oil 

Cellulose - • • 

Mineral matter . • • . 





More than half this mineral matter was phosphoric acid ; indeed, 
it amounted to no less than 6o*6 per cent, of the total ash, so 
that the original embryos contained nearly 3)^ parts per hundred 
of this valuable constituent of bone. The nitrogenous matters 
amounted to thrice the proportion present in the whole wheat 
grain ; the oil or fat was more than six times as much. It should 
be added that the albuminoid matter included little or no 
tenacious gluten, but a considerable quantity of the diastatic 

But if, on some grounds, the exclusion of the germ from our 
mill-products is a procedure of doubtful utility, there can be no 
question that the removal of the fibrous outer envelope of the 
grain is of considerable advantage. The following figures were 
obtained in the analysis of a carefully prepared sample : — 

In zoo parts. 
Water - • - • • • • • •15*2 

Albuminoids (from total nitrogen) • • • •10*4 

Oil 25 

Ash or mineral matter -.-•.. 2*6 

To these analytical results it may be added that this ash con- 
tained no more than 15*3 per cent, of phosphoric acid. All 
these results, and the high proportion of fibre present, contrast 



very strongly with those previously given in the analysis of the 

It may be useful to give here a more complete analysis of fine 
flour as obtained from white soft wheat : — 

In ICX3 parts. 

Water - . - - 
Albuminoids, etc. 
Starch, with some malt sugar 

Cellulose - 
Mineral matter- 


74 '3 
















One pound of good wheaten flour, when digested and oxidized 
in the body, might liberate force equal to 2,283 tons raised i ft. 
high. The greatest amount of external work which it could 
enable a man to perform is 477 tons raised i ft. high. 

The nutrient-ratio in fine wheaten flour is 1:7^; the nutrient- 
value is 86^. In calculating this nutrient-ratio it has been 
assumed that the whole of the nitrogen present in the flour exists 
in the form of albuminoids. This assumption is never quite 
correct ; with low grade and damaged flours it will be far from 
the truth. In the case of the fine wheaten flour, which is now 
under discussion, it was found that the true albuminoid percentage 
was 9*9, and not 10*5 as given above. When this lower figure is 
adopted, the nutrient-ratio comes out 1:77, instead of i : 7*25. 

One pound of wheaten flour cannot produce more than about 
ij^ oz. of the dry nitrogenous substance of muscle or flesh. 

Instead of giving analyses of all the other mill-products 
before named, we will cite one additional analysis only, that of a 
rather coarse bran : — 

Water - - - • • 
Albuminoids and cerealin - 
Indeterminate nitrogen-compounds 
Starch, with some maltose 

Fat - - - - . 

Cellulose - - - • • 

Mineral matter • • . . 

In zoo parts. 



















In comparing these numbers with those before given as repre- 


senting the composition of fine flour, it will be seen that bran 
contains much more cellulose than fine flour. This fibrous 
matter, which is indigestible, forms J^ of the bran, but not yj^ of 
the fine flour. 

If we include cerealin with the true albuminoids, the nutrient- 
ratio of this bran may be set down as 1:4; the nutrient-value 
will be 67. But in practice it is found that coarse bran, owing to 
its mechanical condition chiefly, is far from yielding the whole of 
its nutrients to the digestive juices. 

In bran there is a remarkable substance called cerealin^ which 
acts as a ferment in causing the change and solution of other 

There are many preparations of wheat which we can do little 
more than mention. Such are semolina and semola, which are 
made in milling wheat (and other grains also, as those of the oat). 
They consist of small fragments of the interior of the grain, and 
are often prepared from hard wheat rich in flesh-formers. It is 
from the same kinds of wheat that the macaroni, vermicelli, and 
the infinite variety of Italian pastes are prepared. Wheat groats, 
or grits, are distinguished from semola by the presence of the 
husk of the grain in large or small proportion. 

French, Pain. German, Erod. Italian, Pane, 
Of all the cereals wheat yields the best bread. This is due 
mainly to the peculiar character of a great proportion of the 
nitrogenous matter of wheat. This part of the nitrogenous matter 
may be obtained in an impure form by making a little flour into 
a thick dough with water, and then washing the starch out of the 
mass by means of a stream of water. A grayish-yellow, tough, 
and elastic mass is left, which can be drawn out into threads 
This substance is often called gluten ; it is a mixture of at least 
4 albuminoids, called gluten-fibrin, gluten-casein, gliadin, and 
mucedin. It confers upon a prepared mixture of flour and water, 
or dough, the property of yielding a sponge, which becomes firm, 


or sets, at the heat of the baking-oven. The bubbles which make 
the dough light are produced in different ways, but they are 
always filled at first with carbonic acid gas. The bubbles become 
larger as the dough begins to get hot in the oven, and finally they 
are fixed in shape and size by a higher degree of heat. 

There are three ways of turning dough into bread. In the 
first of these the carbonic acid gas necessary to produce the 
spongy texture is made within the dough by means of haven, or 
of yeast Leaven is not much used in this country — it consists 
of flour and water, sometimes mixed with salt and boiled potatoes 
• — it is kept till it has begun to suffer change. This change 
commences in the albuminoids, which contain or produce a 
substance — a kind of ferment — which turns the sugar of the flour 
into alcohol and carbonic acid gas. The action of beer yeast is 
the same. Yeast, whether fresh or partially dried, has the power 
during its growth of decomposing a warm solution of glucose or 
maltose — the sugars of fruits and malt. In its growth the yeast 
plant, mixed with the dough, breaks up these sugars, changing 
them into carbonic acid gas and alcohol. The alcohol escapes 
almost completely during baking, and so does most of the carbonic 
acid gas; but the latter has made innumerable bubbles in the 
dough previous to its escape, and thus the bread has become 
vesiculated. Leaven, assisted by a little yeast, is much used 
abroad, as in Paris, for making bread. Immense and increasing 
quantities of German, or dried yeast — carefully prepared by 
washing, etc. — are now imported into England. From a sack of 
flour weighing 280 lb. about 95 quartern or 4-lb. loaves may be 
obtained. These will lose weight, some water being given off 
from the bread after it has left the oven till it is cold — but the 
loss continues for long, the 4-lb. loaf at last being reduced to 
little more than 3 lb. New bread contains from 38 to 43 per 
cent, of water, sometimes even 45 per cent., and usually at least 
40 per cent. The flesh-formers in white bread amount to 7 or 8 
per cent. ; the starch, gum, and sugar, to 48 or 50 per cent. ; 
and the mineral matter (which includes the common salt 



added to the dough) to i^ per cent. The chief chemical 
difference between bread and the flour from which it has been 
made consists in the presence of much dextrin in the bread, along 
with some soluble starch. The crust contains more dextrin than 
the crumb. 

But it is easy to make bread without yeast or leaven, the 
carbonic acid gas necessary being set free within the dough by 
means of the chemical reaction between a strong acid and a 
carbonate. This process yields unfermented^ or chemical bread ; 
and one plan of this kind, which was patented by Dr. Whiting in 
1837, has been much used. The materials used to produce the 
carbonic acid gas are bicarbonate of soda and hydrochloric acid 
(spirits of salt). But it is necessary to make sure that these 
materials are free from injurious impurities ; and it must also be 
remarked that the quantity of salt which is produced by the 
union of the bicarbonate of soda and the hydrochloric acid is 
excessive. It is true, however, that with care in the preparation 
of the dough less soda and acid will suffice, so that we may pro- 
duce a light and agreeable loaf with about half the quantities of 
these substances usually recommended. Unfermented bread may 
also be made with sesqui-carbonate of ammonia without any 
acid, this compound expanding or raising the " sponge " and then 
escaping at the heat of the oven. 

Baking powders contain tartaric acid and carbonate of soda, 
and the bread made with them differs only from the unfermented 
bread of Dr. Whiting in the presence of tartrate of soda — an 
aperient salt — instead of common salt. Two such powders in 
common use gave on analysis the following percentages of their 
more important constituents : — 

Tartaric acid 
Bicarbonate of soda 
Common salt 
Potato flour - 
Rice flour - 
Wheat flour - 
Rye flour 




27 '6 


31 '6 












The cereal flours (or starches), above named, are introduced in 
a dried state. In some other baking powders the acid sulphate 
of potash, or bisulphate of potash, is substituted for tartaric acid ; 
the resultant sulphates of soda and potash are strongly purgative 
salts. Alum has been found as an adulterant in some of these 
powders. Similar powders, coloured yellow with turmeric, are 
sold under the name oi egg powders. It is scarcely necessary to 
say that they have nothing in common with eggs save colour. 

There is another process of making bread without leaven or 
yeast, or even any saline matter. It is known as Dr. Dauglish's 
process, the bread produced being called " aerated." Here the 
requisite carbonic acid gas is prepared beforehand in a condition 
of perfect purity, and in a separate vessel. This gas is then 
forced into water, which becomes highly charged with it, like 
soda-water. The flour is mixed with this aerated, or carbonated 
water in a strong iron vessel, under pressure. The dough thus 
formed rises when introduced into the oven, for the gas with 
which it has been charged expands and escapes on being with- 
drawn from the pressure of the mixing vessel, and still more on 
being heated. Aerated bread differs in taste from ordinary fer- 
mented bread. When first introduced it was perhaps less generally 
liked, but it certainly retains in a remarkable degree the aroma of 
the original pure wheaten flour from which it is made, while 
acetic acid, so often present in fermented bread, is entirely absent 
from aerated bread. Great improvements have been made in the 
machinery for mixing, kneading, and moulding, the whole of these 
operations being performed in closed vessels under pressure. To 
each sack of flour, weighing 280 lb., common salt, to the extent 
of 3 lb., is added. This proportion corresponds to 220 grains 
per quartern loaf, which is just o*8 per cent., or 55 grains per 
pound of bread. 

Before leaving this extremely important subject of bread, a 
few words on brown bread may not be out of place. Brown 
bread, as usually made and sold by bakers, is merely ordinary 


white bread, containing a dash of pollard or bran. Now, this is not 
a satisfactory mixture, for the more valuable middlings, sharps, 
and fine pollard should not be excluded. Indeed, whole 
wheaten meal is now specially prepared by grinding the whole 
grain without effecting any subsequent separation of the resulting 
product into various grades according to degree of fineness or 
coarseness. If the wheat has been previously thoroughly cleaned, 
and the outermost skin has been removed, a true brown bread or 
true wheat-meal bread may be obtained with this meal. And in 
such bread all the nutrients of the grain will be present, the 
albuminoids, the oil or fat, and the mineral matters existing in 
larger proportions than in bread made from fine white or even 
from seconds flour. The nitrogenous matters which are not 
albuminoid will, of course, also be present in larger proportion in 
this whole-meal bread. Another kind of wheat-meal bread is 
also now made. The meal used is prepared from grain deprived 
not only of the outermost, non-nutritious skin, but, in part, at 
least, of the other coats, and of the embryos \ it is richer in 
albuminoids, oil and minerals, than fine white bread, but inferior 
in these points to true whole-meal bread. 

But it must not be concluded from the above facts that 
whole-meal bread, and other kinds of brown bread, necessarily 
furnish more nourishment than white bread. Though richer in 
nutrients other than starch, they will, unless the meal of which 
they have been made has been uniformly and finely ground, 
contain numerous large, rough, branny particles, which so stimu- 
late the action of the intestine that the material is hurried along 
the digestive tract without that complete digestion and absorption 
of its nutritious matters which white bread undergoes. And then 
there is another cause which renders useless a not inconsiderable 
part of the nutrients present in bread made from ordinary wheat 
meal. The large, branny particles enclose and protect from the 
action of the digestive juices a large portion of the nutrients they 
contain. Thus it happens that the solid excreta of persons con- 



suming such bread are not only unusually bulky, but contain a 
large amount of unused nitrogenous matters. So bread from 
flour from which all coarse particles have been excluded is pre- 
ferred, not unreasonably, by men who have hard bodily labour 
to perform. But there are, on the other hand, many persons to 
whom whole-meal bread and biscuits are exceedingly useful in 
aiding the action of the bowels. Any deficiencies in the amount 
of phosphates, etc., in white bread, are made up by the use of 
eggs, milk, and other foods of animal origin. 

Whole-meal bread can be most successfully made by the 
aeration-process. If yeast or leaven be employed the loaf is 
heavy and imperfectly vesiculated. This is due, in part at least, 
to the powerful diastatic action on starch of the cerealin present 
in those parts of the grain which, though absent from fine flour, 
are present in their entirety in whole meal. An analysis of a 
good average sample of whole-meal bread gave the following 

results : — 

Water - . . . 

Albuminoids - . - 
Other nitrogen-compounds 
Starch and dextrin - 


Cellulose - - - . 
Mineral matter - - - 

In icx> parts. 


' 1-3 


I 5 















The nutrient-ratio is here i : 4^^ ; the nutrient-value is 53. 
Highly nitrogenous hard wheats are evidently often used for 
whole-meal bread, for in many cases I have found the percentage 
of true albuminoids present to exceed eleven. 

The demand for very white bread has compelled millers, at 
enormous cost, to revolutionise their machinery and methods. 
The fine flour now produced in English mills yields a bread 
beautiful in appearance, perfect in pile and texture, and pleasant 
in taste. For persons living in luxury, to whom a great variety of 
other food-stufl"s, animal as well as vegetable, are accessible, the 


finest and whitest bread is suitable enough. But, unfortunately, 
for the poor, and for those obliged to live on a bare-sustenance 
diet, the predilection for the whitest bread amounts to an ignorant 
prejudice, injurious to their adequate nutrition ; it is particularly 
prejudicial to the health and development of growing children. 
For them, bread made of seconds or biscuit flour, of finely-ground 
wheat meal obtained from well-cleaned and skinned grain, or of 
other cereal mill-products, sufficiently commmuted, affords a far 
better food, weight for weight, than pretty, fancy bread, the defects 
of which, in regard to its nutrient-ratio and its low percentage of 
phosphates, have been previously described. 

A few words as to malt-bread, so called, may not be out of 
place here. When malt-flour is added to the ordinary flour used 
in bread-making there is a certain amount of dextrin produced 
through its diastatic action upon starch. But this action soon 
ceases in the oven, for this reason, that the activity of diastase is 
entirely destroyed by the heat, which, in the interior of the loaf, 
approaches 212' F. This diastatic activity is permanently lost, 
so that malt-bread cannot possibly have the power claimed for it 
of aiding the digestion of starch. 

According to Dr. Frankland's experiments, i lb. of breadr 
crumb, if digested and oxidized in the human body, might liberate 
force equal to 1,333 tons raised i ft. high. The greatest amount 
of external work which it could enable a man to perform is 267 
tons raised i ft. high. 

There are several substances found in bread, or rather, in the 
bread of some bakeries, which have no business there. They 
are chiefly introduced to whiten the loaf, to enable damaged or 
inferior flour to be used, or to cause the bread to retain more 
water than usual. Alum and sulphate of copper (blue vitriol) are 
employed for the former purposes, boiled rice and potatoes for 
the latter. The two chemical substances, alum and sulphate of 
copper, are dangerous adulterants when added to a material in 
daily use like bread. A little pure lime-water answers the same 

^. or 


purposes, and there is no reason to think it can be productive 
of the least harm. The case of boiled rice and potatoes is less 
serious. These materials are, of course, perfectly wholesome in 
themselves, indeed the latter material is often advantageously 
employed in making bread at home, on the small scale ; but when 
these substances are used in order that loo loaves may be got 
from a quantity of flour which should yield no more than 95, and 
when we know that this increase is caused by the larger quantity 
of water in the bread prepared with the addition of potatoes or 
rice, then these additions are justly described as adulterations. 

From what we have just said, it must not be assumed that the 
adulterants found in bread are the additions, in all cases, of the 
baker. Millers are known to employ several substances for the 
purpose of whitening, or otherwise improving the flour, or for 
fraudulently increasing its weight. Rice meal, bean meal, corn- 
flour, or Rivett wheat flour, and the flour of Dari (a sort of millet), 
have been frequently detected in the products of the flour mill. 
But these materials, though cheaper than wheaten flour, cannot 
be said to be such serious adulterations as those of a mineral 
character. Chalk, dolomitic limestone, powdered gypsum, alum, 
china clay, and even heavy spar or barytes have been employed 
for this purpose. All of these mineral matters are useless, having 
no value as food ; some are even injurious. Fortunately they can 
all be detected by chemical tests, while the adulterants 
named before (rice, etc.) require very skilful examination in a 
good microscope. The mere fact that a sample of wheaten flour 
left, on being burnt, more than its proper proportion of ash would 
point to adulteration with some of the earthy matters which have 
just been named. 

In times of scarcity, all sorts of vegetable matters have 
been mixed with wheaten flour and meal in order to eke out 
a limited supply of these nutritious matters. During the siege of 
Paris a coarse bread was made containing but little wheat, th** 
main ingredients being potatoes and beans, with oats, rice, and 


rye, together with a good deal of fibrous vegetable matter in the 
shape of chaff and straw. In Norway and Sweden the sawdust of 
non-resinous woods, like beech and birch, is boiled in water, 
baked, and then mixed with flour to form the material for bread. 
And in England, during the seventeenth century, a very tolerable 
bread was made from a mixture of the pulp of boiled turnips with 
wheaten flour. 


Macaroni (in Italian maccheroni), vermicelli, and pates d'ltalie 
are prepared from dense, hard, translucent, and highly-nitrogenous 
varieties of wheat. Our supplies are obtained chiefly from Italy 
and France. In England these valuable and nutritious food- 
products are generally regarded somewhat in the light of luxuries. 
In some parts of the Continent, and especially in South Italy, 
they form a usual and substantive part of the popular diet. 

Some notion of the composition of Neapolitan macaroni may 
be obtained from the two subjoined analyses : — 

Composition of Macaroni. 

In zoo parts. 




. .. 

10 'O 











Water • 

Albuminoids, etc. • 
Starch, etc. - 
Fat - - . 
Mineral matter 

Assuming that the nitrogen in these products is wholly albu- 
minoid, the nutrient-ratio of a will be i : 6'8 and its nutrient- 
value 86 '9. The corresponding figures for b will be i to 5*6 
and 89 6. 

As the macaroni a is the finest sort, costing in Naples 2*7d. 
per pound, while the macaroni b is the cheapest, and may be 
bought for I •6d. per pound, it is important to note that the lower 
price commands a product which possesses not only a higher 
total nutrient-value than the more costly sort, but a better adjusted 



nutrient-ratio. Moreover, this is true even when we have made 
due allowance for the larger proportion of non-albuminoid 
nitrogen in the cheaper material. To these statements we may 
add the observation that the less costly product contains twice as 
much phosphoric acid as the dearer, namely 0*93 per cent., 
instead of 0*4 per cent. 

Macaroni loses rather more than 3 per cent, of its original 
substance during cooking, but it takes up nearly three times its 
weight of water. Macaroni should be well soaked, previous to 
use, in such a quantity of cold water as will be slightly in excess 
of that which it is capable of absorbing. 


Biscuits are usually distinguished from bread by two 
differences : they are not, as a rule, vesiculated, and they are 
baked until they contain scarcely any water, sometimes not even 
5 per cent. There are, of course, some exceptions to this rule, 
especially in the case of fancy biscuits. The word *' biscuit" 
means twice cooked or baked, and is thus not applicable to the 
generality of biscuits now made. There are, however, some 
biscuits which have really been twice in the oven ; such are rusks, 
which are made from flour, milk, butter, and sugar, first lightly 
baked as a kind of bread, then cut into slices and again put into 
a sharp oven, so as to scorch both sides. Afterwards they are 
thoroughly dried by a lower degree of heat continued for some 

Most kinds of biscuits consist of a basis of flour and water, 
with slight additions of butter, sugar, and flavouring substances. 
Unleavened, or Passover cakes, consist of flour and water alone. 
Diet, digestive, and bran biscuits contain or consist of bran. 
Abernethy biscuits contain caraway seeds. Cracknels are glazed 
with white of egg. Macaroons and ratafias are flavoured with 
sweet and bitter almonds. Ginger, lemon, and orange-peel, and 

OATS. 83 

many other flavourers and spices, are used as ingredients in fancy 
biscuits and cakes. All plain biscuits may be considered as more 
nutritious than bread, in the proportion of 5 to 3. They are 
most digestible when not very dense, and when they have been 
browned by baking, so as to turn much of their starch into 
dextrin. An analysis of the biscuits supplied to the ships of the 
British navy will illustrate some of the foregoing observations : — 

Composition of Navy Biscuits. 

Water . . . . 


Other nitrogen-compounds 

Starch and dextrin • 


Cellulose .... 
Mineral matter • 

00 parts. 

In X lb. 
02. gr. 


I 277 


I 297 











The nutrient-ratio is here i : 7 J^ ; the nutrient- value is 89. 


French, Avoine. German, Hafer. Italian, Avena. 

(Avena saiiva.) 

The oat belongs to the same order as the wheat — that of the 
grasses or graminaceae. The native country of the plant from 
which our cultivated varieties are derived is unknown. The oat 
is hardier than wheat, and ripens in higher latitudes. In the 
United Kingdom there were, in the year 1901, no less than 
4,112,297 acres devoted to this crop, as against 2,140,908 under 
barley, and only 1,746,155 under wheat Though chiefly grown 
as food for horses, there are two forms in which it is largely used 
for human food — these are oat-cake and oatmeal porridge. As 
the husk adheres to the oat grain firmly, it is necessary to dry it 
in a kiln, in order to loosen it. Afterwards the kiln-dried oats 
are submitted to a process of milling, which removes the husk 

G 2 



and leaves the nutritive part of the grain, as groats or grits, which 
are then ground and constitute oatmeal. Oatmeal varies in 
composition a good deal, especially as regards the proportions o( 
water, fat, and albuminoids. When quite fresh, and before ex- 
posure to the air, its water does not exceed 5 per cent, and may 
be less; the fat or oil amounts to 7, and in the best samples to 10 
per cent. ; while the albuminoids may be 14 to 16 per cent. 
Scotch oatmeal is the best and richest ; it forms as porridge or 
oatcake a very nourishing though often somewhat laxative food. 
It is much richer in albuminoids than ordinary wheaten flour. 


Oat flour cannot alone be made into bread. As oats in the husk 
are not used as human food, we need not give the complete 
analysis of the whole oat grain, which differs from that of oatmeal, 
mainly in containing more cellulose or fibre and more mineral 
matter. A careful analysis of a fresh sample of Scotch oatmeal 
showed the following results : — 

Composition of Scotch Oatmeal. 

In 100 parts. 

In X lb. 

oz. gr. 

Water . - . . 

. - - 5-0 


Albuminoids, etc. 

. 161 

2 252 

Starch, etc. - . . . 

- 63-0 

10 35 



I 269 


• - - 37 


Mineral matter - . - . 



The following figures show the 

Composition of Irish Oatmeau 

Water . . . . 

Albuminoids - . - 
Other nitrogen- compounds 

Starch, etc. . - - 
Fat - 

Cellulose - - - . 

Mineral matter . - - 

In TOO parts. 







In X lb. 

oz. gr. 

o 350 

2 161 

10 315 

1 178 
o 119 
o 140 


In order that a fair comparison might be made between these 
two samples of oatmeal the results of analysis have been calculated 
on the assumption that 5 per cent, of moisture was present in 
both of them. This proportion of water, however, rapidly rises 
(to 10 or 12 parts per hundred) when the oatmeals are exposed to 
ordinary air. The analysis of the Irish oatmeal was rather more 
complete than that of the Scotch, for, in the former, the irut 
albuminoids present were separately determined. To make the 
two analyses strictly comparable as to this constituent about 
I -I must be deducted from its amount as given for the Scotch 
oatmeal — the percentage for this will then stand at 15*0, 
practically identical with the i4"8 per cent, actually found in 
the Irish oatmeal, in which the only inferiority consists in 
its somewhat smaller proportion of fat. The corrected numbers 
for the nutrient-ratio and the nutrient-value in the two oatmeals 
are; — 

Scotch; nutrient-ratio, i ; 57, nutrient- value, 102 
Irish; ^ „ 1:5-9. *> » 102 

According to Frankland, i lb. of oatmeal, when digested and 
oxidized in the body, might liberate force equal to 2,439 ^^^s 
raised i ft. high. The greatest amount of external work which it 
could enable a man to perform is 488 tons raised i ft. high. It 
is, however, probable that the sample which was used in this 
experimental trial was decidedly inferior to fine Scotch oatmeal, 
the composition of which is given above. 

One hundred pounds of oats (weighing 45 J^ lb. the bushel) 
commonly yield the following proportion of oatmeal, etc. ; — 

From 100 lb. of oata. 
Oatmeal - • • • - 60 lb. 
Husks - • • - • • 26 „ 
Water - - • - - • 12 „ 
Loss --•--• a 




French, Orge. German, Gersie. Italian, Orzo, 
{Ilordeum vulgare.) 

Barley belongs to the natural order of the grasses. The 
plant was originally a native of western temperate Asia. It is 
hardier than wheat or oats, and may be grown in high northern 
latitudes. It is not extensively cultivated in America; in the 
United Kingdom, 2,140,908 acres were devoted to this crop in 
the year 1901, as against 2,220,043 acres in 1892. Barley was 
largely used in ancient times as human food. Most of that 
grown in England is now converted into malt for making beer. 
Some is ground into meal and used for feeding pigs ; while much 
is milled, yielding pot or Scotch barley and pearl barley. The 
whole grain is subjected to a rasping or paring process, by which 
the fibrous coats of the grain are more or less completely removed. 
Pot barley is the coarsest product, and retains something of the 
original shape of the grain. The following particulars concerning 
the products obtained in the process of pearling barley may be 
useful : — 

One hundred pounds of barley yield i2j^ lb. of " coarse dust,** 
and become " blocked barley." 

This blocked barley yields 14^^ lb. of "fine dust," and 
becomes '* Scotch or pot barley." 

Pot barley yields 25 J^ lb. of "pearl dust," and becomes 
"pearl barley." The quantity of pearl barley thus obtained is 
about 37^ lb.— a loss of 10 per cent, being unaccounted for. 

The composition of the three waste products or "dusts" is, 
in 100 parts :- 

Coarse Dust. 

Fine Dust. 

Pearl Dust. 

Water - - « • . 


• •-• 




Albuminoids . - - . 

• 5*3 

• • • 


ff «• 


Other nitrogen-compounds • 




• »• 




• •• 


• •• 


Starch, etc. - - . . 

. 46-9 

• •• 


• • • 

67 "2 

Cellulose - . - . 

• 24-5 

• •• 


• • • 


Mineral matter 

• 57 



• • • 




Patent barley is pearl barley ground into flour. Pot and 
pearl barley are used in soups, puddings, etc. It will be seen 
from the annexed analysis that pearl barley is inferior to wheaten 
flour in flesh-formers. 

Composition of Common Pearl Barley. 

Water - • - 

Albuminoids . . . 
Other nilrogen-compour.ds 
Starch, etc. 


Cellulose - - • • 
Mineral matter - 

100 parts. 












75 5 



I '3 






The nutrient-ratio is here \\\2}{\ the nutrient-value 85. 
Barley flour does not yield a light bread, but it may be used 
for bread-making when mixed with wheaten flour. 


French, SdgU. German, Roggen. Italian, Segale, 

(Secale cereale.) 

Rye, hke wheat, oats, and barley, belongs to the grasses. 
It was formerly extensively grown in Great Britain, and is still 
cultivated to some extent, especially in the eastern counties of 
England ; but in most parts of this country rye is used as green 
fodder only. The grain of rye is employed mainly for malting 
purposes, but its flour may be made into bread. Rye bread is 
dark-coloured, heavy, and sourish ; it keeps moist for a long time. 
It is a favourite food in many parts of Northern Europe, and 
is known as black bread. A palatable bread may be made from 
a mixture of 2 parts of wheaten flour and i part of rye flour. 

Rye grain is peculiarly liable to the attacks of a fungus, which 
produces the ergot of rye. The whole substance of the grain is 
altered and blackened, while a remarkable compound called 
ergotine is produced. This substance renders ergoted grain 
unwholesome, and sometimes even dangerous. 



The following table shows the 


Albuminoids, etc. 
Starch, etc. 
Fat - 

Cellulose - 
Mineral matter - 

Composition of Rye Flour, 

In xoo parts. 

• 13*0 

- 10-5 

m 71*0 

I '6 














The nutrient-ratio is here-i : 7 ; the nutrient-value is 85. 

French, Riz. German, Rets. Italian, Riso, 


{Oryza sattva.) 

Rice is a grass, a native of India. It is extensively grown 
in India, Ceylon, China, Japan, and the East generally; also in 
Carolina and Central America. It is likewise cultivated with 
success in the southern parts of Europe. Rice requires a high 
temperature and abundance of water to bring it to perfection; 
indeed the fields in which the crop is grown are irrigated. 
There is, however, a mountain-rice, which thrives without 
artificial supplies of water. Many varieties of rice are cultivated, 
but they do not differ materially, so far as the composition of 
the grain is concerned. Rice is more largely grown and 
consumed as human food than any other cereal. It is said to 
be the main food of one-third of the human race. Alone, 
however, it is not a perfect food, being deficient in albuminoids 
and in mineral matters. 

Rice is imported into this country from Carolina, Patna, 
Bengal, Arracan. When enclosed in the husk rice is known as 
paddy. By careful milling this husk is removed, and the pearled 
grain thus cleaned is what is generally known as rice. The rice 
husk, or shude^ is harsh and fibrous in texture, and contains 

RICE, 89 

much cellulose and silica. It is largely used in adulterating 
many articles of human and cattle food. Rice is employed both 
in the form of the cleaned rice of the shops and ground into 
flour. Much starch is extracted from rice. Rice starch is 
readily changed into a kind of sugar, accompanied by some 
dextrin, when it is warmed with very weak sulphuric acid. In 
the making of sake, the favourite alcoholic beverage of Japan, 
a special organised ferment is used to effect the same change. 

Composition of Cleaned Rice. 

In 100 parts. '" ' ^^• 

^ oz. gr. 

Water 14*6 ... 2 147 

Albuminoids, etc. 7*5 ... 18/ 

Starch, etc. 76 'o ... 12 70 

Fat OS ... o 35 

Cellulose 0*9 ... o 63 

Mineral matter 0*5 ... o 35 

The nutrient-ratio is here i : 10; the nutrient-value is 84. 

According to Frankland, i lb. of rice, when digested and 
oxidized in the body, might liberate force equal to 2,330 tons 
raised i ft. The greatest amount of external work which it could 
enable a man to perform is 466 tons raised i ft. high. 

Rice is most usefully employed as food when it is consumed 
along with substances rich in nitrogenous or flesh-forming 
matters. Thus it may be used with meat, eggs, and any kind 
of pulse, as peas or beans. As it is deficient in natural fat, oil, 
butter, fat bacon, or similar articles of food, should be eaten with 
it. Rice should not be boiled, but merely steamed till tender, 
for it yields to boiling water a considerable part of its nitrogenous 
and mineral constituents — those compounds, in fact, in which 
it was already deficient. But this objection to boiling rice does 
not, of course, apply to its use in soups. Rice cannot be sub- 
stituted for green vegetables for any length of time without an 
unhealthy condition of the body, and sometimes scurvy, being 
the result 




Maize, or Indian Corn. 

French, BU de Turquie. German, Mais, Italian, Graniurco, 

(Zea Mays.) 

Maize belongs to the grasses. It is a native American plant 
but was soon introduced into the Old World. It is now largely 
grown in Southern Europe, North Africa, and North America. 
It is the corn of the United States, where numerous preparations 
of the grain are in use. The whole ear is spoken of as a cob ; 
the pearled grains are called samp. Broken or split maize is 
known as hominy, while grains which have been heated or roasted 
so as to burst them are designated by the term pop-corn. Ground 
maize forms, when boiled, a very common and favourite food in 
the United States, being called mush. In Italy it goes under 
the name of polenta, while the more finely prepared meal is 
termed polentina. Maize will grow and often ripen its cobs in 
England, but it cannot be relied on as a field crop. Several 
varieties, and possibly more than one species, of maize are 
in cultivation. These differ much in the size, shape, and colour 
of the grain, and in other particulars as well ; but in their com- 
position there is not much variation — 

Composition of Maize. 

In loo parts. 

Water . . • - 

Albuminoids - - - 
Other nitrogen- compounds 
Starch, etc. - - - 


Cellulose - - • • 
Mineral matter - • • 







In X lb. 

02. gr. 

2 119 

O 21 

10 280 

o 350 

O 210 

o 140 

The nutrient-ratio is here i : 8J^ ; the nutrient-value is 87. 

Maize was not consumed to any great extent in the British 
Isles till the year of the potato famine, 1846, when considerable 
quantities of the grain and meal were imported. Since then 
large and increasing quantities of maize reach England, to be 


used, not only as human food, but 'for horse keep. Many pre- 
parations of maize are now popular articles of food under the 
names of corn-flour, oswego, maizena, cornena, etc. It must be 
distinctly understood that these products are not flour, but nearly 
pure starch, and that they contain mere traces of bone-forming 
and flesh-forming materials. When used with milk, however, 
their deficiencies are to some extent supplied, although, even 
then, there must necessarily be an excessive proportion of car- 
bonaceous to nitrogenous nutrients in the mixture. In i lb. of 
the so-called "corn-flour" from maize, we found but 18 grains of 
albuminoids ; in i lb. of the similar preparation known as 
** oswego," 69 grains were present. 

Maize is poorer than wheat in flesh-formers, but richer than 
rice. It contains more fat than wheat, barley, or rice. Mixed 
with wheaten flour, it yields an agreeable bread. It may be 
used for biscuits, puddings, porridge, cakes, eta 


French, Millet German, Hirse, Italian, Miglio. 
{Panicum miliaccum^ etc.) 

Very many different plants belonging to the grasses yield the 
grain known as millet. The Panicum spectabile of Brazil grows 
seven or eight feet high, while other species on the Amazon are 
quite as luxuriant. P, cermntm is the millet of Texas ; in India, 
P. miliaceum^ P. miliare^ P, frumentaceum^ P. colonum^ Paspalum 
scrohiculatum^ Setaria italica, and Penniseium typhoideum are 
amongst the chief species of millet grown. In Central and 
Southern Europe several of these species are cultivated. 

Millet grain is used for human food chiefly in hot countries. 
It may be made into a kind of bread, quite equal, as far as its 
composition goes, to wheaten bread. 

A sample of one of the millets grown in Europe, the grain of 


Panicum miltaceum^ gave, when the husk had been removed, the 
following results on analysis : — 

Composition of Millet (Husked). 

In loo parts. 

Water .-•••.. 13*0 

Albuminoids - • - - - - 12 "5 

Other nitroj^en-compounds - - • 0*4 

Starch, etc. - 65*4 

Fat 3*6 

Cellulose --••••• 3*5 

Mineral matter - • - • • • 1*6 

The nutrient-value of this millet is 845^; its nutrient-ratio 
is 1 : 5^. 

The nutrient-ratio in Italian millet, Seiaria italtca^ is i : 7 J^. 

Dart or Durra is the grain of certain varieties of Sorghum 
vulgare^ and is largely consumed as food in some countries. 
It is imported into this country in some quantity, and used for 
feeding cattle, poultry, etc. The grain is large and white, and 
has the following composition : — 














In 100 

Water - - . . • 12*2 
Albuminoids, etc. • • • 8'2 
Starch, etc. - • • • 706 

In 100 


Fat 4-2 

Cellulose - - - " 3*i 
Mineral matter - - -17 

The grain of many other grasses is used as food. We may 
cite as an instance the Russian preparation known as manna 
kroup, consisting of groats from the grain of the common grass, 
Poa fltiitans. The grain of Eragrostis abyss viica^ or ** teff," is an 
important food in Abyssinia. 

. Buckwheat. 

French, Sarrasin, German, Buchweizen. Italian, Grano Saracena, 

{Polygonum Fagopyrum.) 

This plant, though not a grass, may be fitly considered here. 
It is largely grown in temperate countries for its starchy seeds, 

PEAS. 93 

which resemble the grain of the grasses in composition. Buck- 
wheat is probably a native of Western Asia or Russia : it belongs 
to the order Polygonacea, which includes the rhubarb and the 

Buckwheat is an annual of quick growth and easy cultivation. 
It is sown in Britain for feeding game and poultry, and is also 
grown for green fodder. 

The seed of buckwheat is enclosed in a husk containing much 
indigestible fibre. When this husk, amounting to about 20 per 
cent., has been removed, the richness of the seed in nutritive 
matters is very considerable. 

The published analyses of buckwheat deprived of its husk 
being very discordant, new analyses have been made with the 
following results : — 

In 100 parts. '° » *^- 

*^ oz. gr. 

Water 13*4 ... 2 63 

Albuminoids • • • - - - 15 "2 ... 2 189 

Starch 636 ... 10 77 

Fat 3*4 ... o 238 

Cellulose 2*i ... o 147 

Mineral matter 2*3 ... o 161 

The nutrient-ratio in cleaned buckwheat is i : 4j^ ; the 
nutrient- value is 86. 

§ 2. — Pulse — Peas, Beans, etc. 

There is a marked difference in chemical composition between 
the seeds of leguminous plants on the one hand, and the grain 
of the cereals on the other. This difference mainly consists in 
the far higher porportion of albuminoids, or flesh-formers, in the 
former. In consequence of this difference, the nutrient-ratio in 
the seeds now under consideration is about i to 2}^, instead of i 
to 6}4, as in wheat, or i to 10, as in rice. This fact suggests the 
proper mode of using pulse, which should generally be eaten 
with other foods rich in starch, sugar, fat, oil, or non- nitrogenous 

94 PEAS, 

nutrients. Beans and rice, beans and bacon, are examples of such 

The albuminoid which predominates in pulse is often called 
legumin or vegetable casein. It occurs in leguminous plants 
generally, both in their green parts and in their ripe seeds. It 
appears to be more soluble and more easily digested in the unripe 
fresh seeds than after they have become ripe and dry \ indeed, 
the digestibility of the albuminoids in pulse has been usually 
regarded as low. In general they are not only digested and 
absorbed at a slower rate, but a larger proportion of the total 
amount present remains unattacked and unused in its passage 
along the alimentary tract. 

The proportion of unused to used albuminoids is proportion- 
ately highest when the pulse forms a large part of the ration ; it is 
much reduced when it forms only ^ of the daily food. Even 
under favourable conditions the unabsorbed portion forms ^t ^^ 
■5^ of the total albuminoids. The above-named legumin is not a 
single definite substance, but appears to consist of at least three 
albuminoids, which are known as gluten-casein, legumin, and 
conglutin. The first two present so decided a resemblance to the 
animal casein of milk, that in some parts of China cheeses are 
made from the seeds of beans and peas. The resemblance 
between different species of pulse is so great that we need not 
describe in detail all the cultivated sorts, but may select as 
examples the garden pea, the haricot bean, and the lentil. We 
may here mention that 231,509 tons of various kinds of pulse 
were imported into the United Kingdom in 1899. 


French, Pois. German, Erhsen. Italian, Piselli, 

(Pisum sativum.) 

The cultivated garden pea is probably derived from a plant 
native of countries bordering the Black Sea. It has been long 

PEAS. 95 


grown in England, and, like the French bean, is eaten unripe and 
green, as a fresh vegetable, and ripe, in the form of dried peas, 
split peas, and pea meal. Split peas have had the tough 
envelope of the seed removed. 

Unripe or green peas contain a considerable quantity of sugar, 
while the albuminoid matters in them are more easily digested 
than those in the same seeds when quite ripe. Dry, ripe peas, 
even when ground, require long but slow boiling, to rendci them 
fit for use j they constitute a valuable food, howevei, when 
properly cooked, in the form of pease-pudding and pea-soup. 
Peas and many other legumes contain a bitter substance, which 
predominates in some varieties so greatly as to render them 
unpalatable. This substance may, however, be removed in some 
measure by soaking the seeds or coarse meal in water containing 
a little common washing soda for some time : the liquor is then 
poured away. Nearly the whole of the nitrogenous matter 
in ripe peas exists in the form of true albuminoids. 

Composition of Peas. 

, ^ In 1 lb. 

In loo parts. ^ g,^ 

Water .-....- 14*3 ... 2 126 

Albuminoids, etc. 22*4 ... 3 2$$ 

Starch, etc 51*3 — 8 92 

Fat 2*5 ... o 17s 

Cellulose 6-5 ... i 17 

Mineral matter 3*0 ... o 210 

The nutrient-ratio is i : 2j^, the nutrient- value 79. 

According to Frankland, i lb. of dry peas, when digested and 
oxidized in the body, might liberate force equal to 2,341 tons 
raised i ft. high. The greatest amount of external work which it 
could enable a man to perform is 468 tons raised i ft. high. 

The field pea is Pisum arvense, aud is generally thought to 
be the origin of all oar cultivated varieties, although these are 
now grouped under the generic name of F, sativum. But there 
is a very distinct kind of pea, known as the chick pea, which 
belongs to a different genus — it is the Cicer aridiniim. Chick 

96 BEANS. 

peas are eaten in Spain, and very extensively also in the East, 
being generally parched or lightly roasted. 

Haricot and French Beans. 

French, Haricots. German, Walschen Bohnen.. Italian, Faghioli. 

{Phaseolus vulgaris.) 

The French bean, the kidney bean, and the numerous 
varieties of haricots, are all derived from a plant which was in- 
troduced from India. This vegetable was and is largely grown in 
Italy and France, where its pods are usually allowed to ripen and 
the seeds to dry. In this country the pods are gathered when 
green and unripe, and eaten as a fresh vegetable ; this is the case 
also, to some extent, on the Continent, where the green pods are 
preserved in several ways so as to be available throughout the 
year. The analysis of some pods of well-grown French beans, 
gathered when in the most suitable condition, showed that they 
contained 91*8 per cent, of water; 0*64 per cent, of mineral 
matter; and 2*05 of albuminoids calculated from the total 
nitrogen : in reality this proportion should be halved if the 
percentage of true albuminoids is desired. The dried seeds of 
this plant, known as haricot beans, when carefully and thoroughly 
cooked, are worthy of more extended use in England ; they are 
universally appreciated in France. They should be washed on 
a colander or sieve with cold water, and then soaked for 12 
hours at least, in a just sufficient amount of fresh water, before 
being boiled. They should be eaten with starchy foods, like 
rice, or with bacon, or other fat meats. 

Composition of Haricot Beans. 


Albuminoids, etc. 
Starch, etc. 
Fat - 
Cellulose - 
Mineral matter • 

00 parts. 




14 'O 

• •« 















The nutrient-ratio is here \ -.2% \ the nutrient-value is 80. 


The scarlet-runner (Phaseolus viultiflorus) closely resembles 
the French bean, and is used green in the same way. It is 
believed to be a native of Mexico. The ripe beans are not 

The broad or Windsor bean is, when young, an agreeable and 
wholesome food. It is the seed of a distinct plant derived from 
the field bean, or Faba vulgaris. 


French, Ltntilks. German, Linsen, Italian, Lentil 

{Lens esculenta.) 

This leguminous plant is extensively grown for human food in 
the southern parts of Europe. Numerous varieties exist, but 
they do not differ much in composition and nutritive value. 
This plant was cultivated by the Hebrews and other ancient 
nations. It is thought that the red pottage of Esau was made 
from the well-known red variety of lentil. 

Besides a bitter substance there is a good deal of useless 
fibrous material in the covering of lentil seeds. When this 
covering is removed the meal which lentils yield is of great rich- 
ness. It generally contains more albuminoids than either peas 
or beans, but rather less than lupines. The preparations so much 
advertised under the names of " Revalenta," " Ervalenta," etc., 
contain lentil-meal, generally mixed with some barley or otlier 
flour, and common salt. They are sold at many times the value 
of the meals of which they are composed. 

CoMPCoiTiOxN OK Lentils (husked). 

In icx> parts. 

Water 12-5 

Albuminoids, etc. 25*0 ,^ 

Starch, etc. • - • - - 56*1 .•. 

Fat • - 2'0 ... 

Cellulose • • - • • - 1*9 ... 

Mineral matter - - « • . 2 5 ... 

The nutrient-ratio is here i ; 2*4; the nutrient-value is Z6. 














Ground or Pea Nuts 
(Arachis hypogcea.) 

The pods of this most curious leguminous plant are ripened 
below the soil. The plant is probably of American origin, but 
is grown in many hot countries, and is widely cultivated along 
the West Coast of Africa. It flourishes in a rich soil, and may 
grow to 2 feet in height. The Arachis somewhat resembles a 
large kind of clover in appearance ; it has small bright yellow 
pea-like flowers, borne on long stalks; these, after flowering, 
curl down and force the immature pod into the soil. 

The seeds of the ground-nut when green and unripe are 
roasted, and have a very pleasant taste. When ripe they are 
extremely oily, and require an admixture of starchy matter. 

Composition of Ground-Nuts (shelled). 

Water • 
Albuminoids, etc. 
Starch, etc. 
Oil - 
Cellulose - 
Mineral matter - 

loo parts. 


















The nutrient-ratio is here i : 5*2 ; the nutrient-value is 151. 

Ground-nuts, after the greater part of the oil has been ex- 
pressed, yield a cake much used in this country for feeding cattle. 
But in many tropical countries these nuts are consumed as 
human food. 

Many other leguminous seeds and pods are eaten besides 
those named above. Such are, the pigeon pea {Cajanus indicus\ 
of India; a plant (Voandzeia subUrranea) nearly allied to the 
Vigna bean ; and numerous Indian and Chinese species of 
Dolichos. A full account of Indian pulses will be found in the 
" Food Grains of India." One of these legumes is, however, ot 
so much interest and importance, that a few particulars concerning 
it may be acceptable : 



Soy Beans. 

{Glycine sofa.) 

The soy bean forms a considerable article of food in China 
and Japan. It is grown to some extent in India, and has been 
successfully cultivated, since 1873, in some of the warmer parts 
of Europe. Although there are a number of varieties of this 
pulse, the chief differences between them lie chiefly in the colour, 
size, and shape of the seeds, rather than in divergence as to 
chemical composition. That composition entitles the soy bean 
to the highest place, even amongst the pulses, as a food capable 
of supplementing the deficiencies of rice and other eminently 
starchy grains. Very few vegetable products are so rich as this 
bean, at once in albuminoids and in fat or oil, the former con- 
stituent averaging 35 per cent., and the latter 18 or 19. The 
cultivation of the large pale-seeded varieties should be extended. 

Composition of Soy Beans. 


Albuminoids, etc. 
Starch, traces of dextrin 

Fat - 

Cellulose - 
Mineral matter 

100 parti. 






35 '3 















The nutrient-ratio is here about 1:2; the nutrient-value is 
loi. It should be added that a very active ferment is present in 
the soy bean. This acting upon starch, converts about two-thirds 
of it into sugar and the remainder into dextrin. 

§ 3. — Roots and Tubers. 

It will have been noticed that the vegetable products (corn 
and pulse) already considered, contain but a moderate portion 
of water, generally something like 14 per cent., or 2 oz. in the 

H 2 


pound. But it will presently be seen that all fresh and moist 
vegetables, whether roots, leaves, or fruits, contain much more 
water. Potatoes, indeed, are richer in nutrients than many other 
moist vegetables, but even they contain 75 per cent, of water, or 
1 2 oz. in the pound. White turnips, on the other hand, contain 
from 91 to 93 per cent., or nearly 15 oz. in the pound. Another 
point of difference between the drier foods already studied, and 
those to which attention is about to be directed, lies in the 
presence of more considerable proportions of albumen amongst 
the albuminoids of moist roots and tubers. It is also to be noted 
that roots, tubers, and underground stems, often contain much 
more of their nitrogen in the form of amides, and other non- 
albuminoid compounds, than is the case with the ripe grains and 
seeds which we have just been discussing. 


French, Pommes de terte. German, Karioffehi. Italian, Palate. 

(Solanum tuberosum.) 

The potato belongs to the nightshade order, which includes a 
very large number of poisonous plants. The tubers, which are 
enlargements of the underground stem, form, next to the grain 
of the cereals, our most important vegetable food. The potato 
plant has been found wild in Chili, Peru, and Mexico. It was 
brought to Ireland by Sir John Hawkins in 1565, to England ^by 
Sir Francis Drake in 1585, and in the following year by Sir W. 
Raleigh. Gerarde figured the plant in his " Herbal," published 
in 1597. But this vegetable did not become popular until 
towards the close of the eighteenth century. 

Many varieties of the cultivated potato exist, but variations 
in chemical composition shown by this tuber depend more upon 
its size and maturity than upon the variety. Since the year 1845 
the potato has been the subject of a disease, known as the 


potato murrain, which causes the foliage to die off suddenly and 
the tubers to decay. The murrain prevails in damp, warm sum- 
mers, when there is a heavy rainfall in June or July, and when 
the rain falls on many days. Such conditions are favourable to 
the growth of the parasite, mildew, or fungus, which is the 
immediate cause of the disease. Good drainage, earthing up, 
with plenty of air for the plants, and no excess of actively decay- 
ing matter in the soil, are amongst the best means of moderating 
the attacks of the fungus, which goes by the name of Phytophthora 

Slightly diseased potatoes may be utilised in many ways. If 
cut at once in thin slices or granulated, they may be dried in hot- 
air chambers, and will keep for years. They again absorb water 
when placed in it, and may be cooked in the usual manner. 
The starch, even in badly diseased potatoes, is but little affected, 
and may be obtained from the pulped tubers ^y washing them on 
a cloth in a stream of water. 

From potatoes many products are obtained. These are 
made from the starch of the tuber, which is a good and cheap 
substitute for arrowroot. This starch, by roasting, becomes 
dextrin, or British gum. By boiling with weak sulphuric acid, 
potato starch is changed into glucose or grape sugar, and this, 
by fermentation, yields alcohol Large quantities of spirits are 
made from potato starch, and are sold under the name of British 

The peel or rind of potato tubers contains a poisonous sub- 
stance called solanine. This is destroyed or dissipated when the 
potatoes are boiled or steamed. 

In 1 90 1, 7,043,464 tons of potatoes were grown in the United 
Kingdom: large quantities are also imported from abroad: 353,836 
tons arrived in 1901 from the Channel Islands, France, Germany, 
Holland, and Belgium. \ 

The potato being rather deficient in flesh-formers, cannot be 


used as a complete food, but is best employed as an addition to 
pulse, lean meat, or other nitrogenous foods. 

Composition of Potatoes. 

In xoo parts. J^^ ^^; 

Water 75 'o ... 12 o 

Albuminoids i'2 ... o 84 

Extractives, as solanine and organic acids - 1*5 ... o 105 

Starch iS-Q ... 2 385 

Dextrin and pectose ----- 2*o ... o 140 

Fat 0*3 ... o 21 

Cellulose I'o ... o 70 

Mineral matter - - • - • - 1*0 ... o 70 

The nutrient-ratio is here 1:17; the nutrient- value is 22. 

According to Frankland, i lb. of potatoes, when digested and 
oxidized in the body, might liberate force equal to 618 tons 
raised i ft. high. The greatest amount of external work which it 
would enable a man*to perform is 124 tons raised i ft. 


French, Naveis. German, Weissen Ruben, Italian, Rape, 

(^Brassica campestris.) 

The turnip belongs to the Order of the Cross-flowers, or 
Crudferce, so called because of their four petals being arranged as 
a cross. The Swedish turnip, which is rather more nutritious 
than the common turnip, is a variety {napo-brassica) of the same 

The turnip, like many other plants of the same order, contains 
a pungent essential oil. The root is very watery, and contains 
but little nourishment. Unlike the potato the turnip contains no 
starch, but, instead, a jelly-like matter, belonging to what is 
called the pectose group. Turnips contain no more than one-half 
per cent, of flesh-formers, instead of the i per cent, formerly 
assigned to them. 




Extractives, inc 
Pectose - 
Fat - 
Cellulose - 
Mineral matter 

Composition of White Turnips. 

Id zoo parts. 







uding amides 

The nutrient-ratio is here 
quite 4. 

In X lb. 

oz. gr. 

14 371 







6; the nutrient-value is not 


French, CarotUs, German, Mohren. Italian, Carote, 

(Daucus Caroia.) 

The wild carrot grows abundantly on our southern coasts. It 
belongs to the Umbellifer Order, which includes many edible 
plants, as celery, parsnip, and parsley ; and many poisonous ones, 
as hemlock. The wild carrot, which is of pungent odour and 
disagreeable taste, has become much milder and more succulent 
by cultivation. The cultivated plant is said to have been intro- 
duced into England during the reign of Elizabeth. 

Carrots, unlike parsnips, contain no starch. They are more 
watery than parsnips of the same size, but they are more generally 
liked. The carrot is grown in all the quarters of the globe. 

Well-grown carrots (weighing about 8 oz.) contain, according 
to my analyses — 

In zoo parts. 

Water 89*0 



Sugar - - - . 


Gum, pectose, etc. - 

■ 2*5 

Fat - 


Cellulose - - - . 


Mineral matter - 














The nutrient-ratio is here i : 14 ; the nutrient- value is 7 J^. 
According to Frankland, i lb. of carrots, when digested and 



oxidized in the body, might set free a force equal to 322 tons 
raised i ft. high. The greatest amount of external work which it 
could enable a man to perform is 64 tons raised i ft. high. 


French, Panais. German, Fastinaken. Italian, Pastinacke, 

{Pastinaca saiiva,) 

The garden parsnip is a cultivated variety of the wild parsnip, 
which, like the carrot, is a native umbelHferous plant The culti- 
vated variety has been grown from Roman times. 

The parsnip contains less water than the carrot. There is a 
good deal of starch, with some sugar, present in this root. 

The parsnip is often eaten with salt fish and salt beef, but its 
peculiar taste and texture are disliked by many persons. 

Both spirits and beer are occasionally prepared from parsnips. 

The chief constituents of parsnips are shown in accordance 
with the following analysis : — 

In 100 parts. 

In I lb. 
oz. gr. 

Water - - - . 

■ 82-0 

13 52 

Albuminoids, etc. ^ 



Sugar - . . . 

• 5-0 ... 


Starch . . - , 

• 3*5 


Pectose, dextrin, etc. 

• 37 



I '5 


Cellulose - - - 



Mineral matter - 



The nutrient-ratio is here 1:12: the nutrient- value is 16. 

Beet Root. 

French, Betteraves, German, Rothctt Ruben. Italian, Barhahietole, 

(Beta vulgaris.) 

The sea-beet, common on our southern shores, is thought to 
be the origin of the garden-beet, the sugar-beet, and the field- 
beet or mangold-wurzel. The red garden-beet has been long 
grown in England. Its root, which is of a rich red colour, is 


boiled, and then sliced and eaten in salads or alone. The plant 
belongs to the Goose-foot Order {Chenopodiaceci). 

The garden-beet contains nearly as much sugar as the best 
sugar-beet, which is so largely grown for making sugar in France, 
Belgium, Germany, etc. 

The quantity of flesh-formers in beet root is but one-third of 
the amount usually assigned to this food, the greater part of the 
nitrogen present existing as nitrates, etc 

Roots of garden-beet contain — 

T . In I lb. 

In xoo parts. ^^ g^_ 

Water 82-2 ... 13 67 

Albuminoids - 0*4 ... o 28 

Extractives, including amities - • - I'O ... o 70 

Sugar 100 ... I 262 

Pectose ...-•-- 2*4 ... o 168 

Fat 01 ...07 

Cellulose 3*0 ... o 210 

Mineral matter 0*9 ... o 63 

The nutrient-ratio is here 1:29; the nutrient-value is 12. 

Jerusalem Artichokes. 

French, Topinamhours. German, ErddpfeL Italian, TartufolL 

{Heiianthus tuberosus.) 

Jerusalem artichokes are the tubers of one of the Composttce^ 
a kind of sunflower, which is thought to have been a native of 
Mexico or Brazil. The plant has been cultivated in England, 
though not largely, since the beginning of the seventeenth cen- 
tury. Jerusalem artichokes may be grown for many successive 
years on a poor, dry soil, and yet give a fair crop. The tubers 
should be left in the ground till required for use. 

There is no starch in the Jerusalem artichoke; on this 
account, unlike the potato, it does not become floury when boiled. 
The tubers of this plant contain a substance resembling starch 
known as inulin^ as well as much levulin, a gum-like substance, 
together with some sugar. 



The tubers of Jerusalem artichokes contain — 

Water - 
Albuminoids, etc. 
Gum (levulin) 

Cellulose - 
Mineral matter 

In loo parts. 
80 -o 




















The nutrient-ratio is here 1:8; the nutrient-value is 16. 

French, Ot'gnons. German, Zwieheln, Italian, Cipotte, 

(Allmm Cepa.) 

The onion is a native of the Himalaya and other mountain- 
ranges of Central Asia. It belongs to the Lily Order. Although 
onions have been grown largely in the United Kingdom for 200 
years or more, yet as late as the middle of the seventeenth century 
our supplies were drawn chiefly from Flanders. The large and mild 
onions imported from Spain and Portugal are used as a vegetable 
food, but this bulb is commonly regarded as a mere flavourer. 
The strong smell and taste of onions, as of the garlic and the 
leek, are due to a pungent volatile oil, rich in sulphur; but the 
quantity of this oil is very minute, and is not represented in the 
analysis given here. Onions have a feeding value superior to 
that of white turnips. Burnt, or rather scorched, onions are used 
for colouring soups. 

Moderate-sized English onions contain on an average the 
following proportions of their chief constituents : — 

In 100 parts. 

Water 910 

Albuminoids, etc. - - - • - 1*5 
Mucilage, pectose, and sugar - - - 4*8 

Fat o*2 ... 

Cellulose 2'o 

Mineral matter • - • • - - 0*5 ,». 













If it be assumed that all the nitrogen is here albuminoid the 
nutrient-ratio becomes i : Sj4 ; the nutrient-value lies between 
6 and 7. 

Some analyses show 3 per cent, less water in these bulbs. 

Sweet Potato. 
(Convolvulus Batatas.) 

This plant belongs to the Convolvulus Order. It is probably 
a native of the warmer parts of the American continent, where it 
has long been extensively grown. It is also cultivated largely in 
China and Japan, in Algeria, and even in Southern Europe. It 
has been called the Spanish potato. 

The chief difference between the tubers of this plant and 
those of the true potato lies in the presence of sugar in the 
former. The tubers (so called, but they are really swellings of 
the side roots) of the sweet potato, and those of the different kinds 
of yam, resemble one another somewhat closely as to their con- 
stituents and feeding value, but they are the produce of plants 
belonging to widely different natural orders. 

The sweet potato contains — 

In 100 parts. „, .„ 

*^ oz. gr. 

Water 75-0 ... 12 o 

Albuminoids, etc. i*5 ... o 105 

Starch 15 "o ... 2 175 

Sugar 17 ... o 119 

Dextrin and gum 2*2 ... o 154 

Pectose • 0'9 ... o 63 

Fat 0*4 ... o 28 

Cellulose - - i'8 ... o 126 

Mineral matter 1*5 ... o 105 

The nutrient- ratio is here i : 13; the nutrient-value is 22. 

There are several cultivated varieties of the sweet potato differ- 
ing in size and shape, and in being early or late. Most of them 
have a pronounced odour of violets. One sort known in France 
as Palate Igname^ sometimes attains a weight of 9 lb. 

io8 YAM. 


(Dioscorea alata^ and other species.) 

The tubers of several species of twining shrubs belonging to 
the genus Dioscorea are known as yams. The yam is grown in 
most tropical and sub-tropical countries. It flourishes in Japan, 
the East and West Indies, the South Sea Islands, and is an 
important article of food. 

A kind of yam from China {D. Batatas), called in French 
Igname de la Chine, is cultivated with some success in France 
and Algeria ; the produce has been known occasionally to exceed 
23 tons of tubers per acre. It is quite hardy, the tubers or 
rhizomes are 2 or 3 feet in length, and weigh, when well grown, 
2 or 3 lb. They keep well, and are floury and palatable. 

There is much resemblance both as to chemical composition 
and taste between the yam and the common potato. 

Yams contain on an average — 

In 100 parts. '" ^ '^• 

^ oz. gr. 

Water - - - . • - - - 79*6 ... 12 322 

Albuminoids, etc. - • - - • 2 '2 ... o 154 

Starch, etc. 15 3 ... 2 196 

Fat 05 ... o 35 

Cellulose --•-••- 0-9 ... o 63 

Mineral matter - 1*5 ... o 10$ 


A few other roots of less importance, which are sometimes 
used as accompaniments of meat, may be named here. 

The parsnip-chervil {Anthriscus bulbosus), a native of France, 
has an edible root like a small carrot. 

Rampion {Campanula rapunculus) is much grown in France, 
for the sake of the roots, which are boiled till tender. 

Skirret consists of the small tuberous roots of a large, coarse, 
umbelliferous plant (Slum Sisarum) from China. They are boiled 
for use. 

The small curiously-shaped tubers of a labiate {Stachys tuheri- 
fcra)j have been lately introduced as a vegetable. They contain 



very little starch, but a considerable amount of a substance 
which closely resembles the gum-like, digestible carbohydrate 
known as galacian. The complete analysis of these tubers gave 
the following percentages : — 

Water - 
Albuminoids - 
Amides - 
Galactan, etc. 

Mineral matter 

The roots of the dwarf pa 

I '5 



m {Chamarops humilis), which 
grows wild in some parts of Southern Europe, are eaten by the 
inhabitants in the neighbourhood of St. Antisco at the south-west 
extremity of Sardinia. This food is known locally as margallion. 

§ 4. — Leaves, Stems, Stalks, and whole Plants. 

The cabbage, with the numerous plants botanically connected 
with it, does not differ widely in nutritive value from the turnip. 
But it should be recollected that important mineral matters, as 
potash salts and phosphates, together with vegetable acids, 
flavouring substances, and a variety of active principles, are 
present in notable quantities in many of the succulent vegetables 
which we are about to consider. The asparagine in asparagus, 
the nitrate of potash in lettuces, and the pungent essential oil in 
watercress are instances in point. It will, therefore, be con- 
venient to group these and many other plants together, not 
because they resemble one another much, but because they all 
form agreeable and wholesome accompaniments to more solid 
and nutritious articles of food. It should be added, that the great 
majority of the plants in this section are distinguished from those 
previously considered by the presence of chlorophyll, the green 
colouring matter of leaves ; its nutritive value is not known, how- 
ever, as yet ; it is probably very small. 



French, Chou, German, Kohl. Italian, Cavolo, 
{Brass tea oleracea.) 

The wild plant, one of the CrucifercR^ from which the cabbage 
sprung, grows upon the southern and western coasts of England, 
Wales, and Ireland. The same native plant is also the origin 
of Scotch kail, Brussels sprouts, savoys, red cabbage, and the 
cauliflower and broccoli. So late as 1582 cabbages do not appear 
to have been grown in England, but were imported from the 

The popular German food, sauer-kraut, is made from sliced 
cabbage, sprinkled with salt, pressed and fermented. The inner 
and younger leaves of the cabbage contain much more water 
than the older leaves outside. On the whole, this vegetable may 
be considered more nutritious than the turnip. 

The chief constituents of cabbage are shown in accordance 
with the following analysis : — 

In 100 parts. 

Water ' - - 89-0 

Albuminoids, etc. - - - - - 1*5 

Sugar, starch, ar;d gum - - - - 5*8 

Fat, etc. - • 0-5 

Cellulose 20 

Mineral matter I "2 

The nutrient-ratio is here 1:4; the nutrient-value is 7^. 
Broccoli and cauliflower are rather richer in albuminoids and 
mineral matter than cabbage. 

According to Frankland, i lb. of cabbage, when digested and 
oxidized in the body, might set free force equal to 261 tons 
raised i ft. high. The greatest amount of external work which it 
would enable a man to perform is 52 tons raised i ft. high. 

Besides the cabbage and its many varieties, the green leaves 
of several other plants are eaten after having been boiled^ 





... 14 







SEA-KALE. 1 1 1 

Spinach (Spinacia oleraced)^ a native of Western Asia, is used in 
this way, and is a wholesome vegetable ; it contains much nitre. 
ICO parts of fresh spinach-leaves contain 90 of water, 1*2 of 
albuminoids, 0*5 of fat, 4*0 of carbohydrates, I'o of cellulose, and 
2*o of mineral matter. The leaves of some of the smaller varieties 
of beet (Beta vulgaris) are sometimes substituted for spinach. 
The mountain spinach, or orache {Atriplex hortensis)^ was once 
much grown in this country, and is still cultivated in France ; it 
is a native of Tartary. The young shoots or tops of the common 
stinging-nettle (Urtica dioicd)^ are not unlike spinach when 
properly boiled and dressed. The leek {Aliiufn Porrum) is 
another green and succulent vegetable, which is esteemed 
especially by the Scotch and Welsh. The whole plant, bulb, 
and leaves, is eaten. It should be blanched by earthing up. 
It may be simply boiled, or introduced in place of onions 
(which it resembles in flavour and composition) into soups 
and stews. 

The next plant in this section, and one which we may describe 
more fully, is sea-kale, which is rendered mild and agreeable in 
taste by being earthed up or otherwise blanched 

(Cravibe tnariiima^ 

The sea-kale is a native perennial Crucifer. It is found, 
though rarely, in a wild state, upon some of our sandy and 
shingly coasts. It has been cultivated in England for more than 
200 years, and was introduced to the Continent from this country. 

Cultivated sea-kale is larger and more succulent than the wild 
plant, and has a more agreeable taste. It is earthed up, and the 
blanched stems and leaf-stalks then produced are eaten, after 
having been boiled. 

Sea-kale usually contains no sugar, but a good deal of mucilage 
and some starch. 





. 14 







Freshly-cut sea-kale contains — 

In 100 parts. 

Water 93*3 

Albuminoids, etc. - - - - - i'4 

Mucilage, starch, etc. • - - - 3*8 

Cellulose 0*9 

Mineral matter - o*6 

Sea-kale contains a good deal of nitrogenous matter of one 
kind or another, but it is probable that the proportion of flesh- 
formers to heat-givers is not exactly shown in our analysis, in 
which, some undetermined nitrogen compounds, probably amides, 
are included with the albuminoids, etc. 

The Cardoon is a perennial composite {Cynara Cardunculus\ 
a native of Southern Europe. It is much like the common 
artichoke, but the part eaten is the blanched stalk of the young 
leaves. It is a very handsome plant. 

The Artichoke {Cynara Scolymus) is a native composite from 
Barbary and Southern Europe. The fleshy receptacle of the 
flower, the fleshy scales of the involucre, and the blanched leaf 
stalks are eaten after having been boiled. They have a delicate 
flavour and agreeable texture, but contain little nutritive matter. 
The young buds are sometimes pickled. 

Asparagus (Asparagus officinalis) is a wild seaside English 
plant, made more succulent by cultivation. It is remarkable as 
containing a crystalline alkaloid, asparagine^ which is thought to 
possess diuretic properties. One hundred parts of asparagus stems 
contain, according to my analysis, 89*8 water, 3*0 albuminoids, 
I '5 sugar, i'8 pectose and gum, 0*4 asparagine, 2*6 cellulose, and 
0*9 mineral matter. 

The next articles of vegetable food which we shall notice in 
the present section are the vegetable marrow and the tomato. In 
both these plants it is the fruit which is eaten, but as these fruits 
are not valued because of that usual ingredient of fruits — sugar — 
but are used to accompany meat and other foods with which salt 
is eaten, they may be suitably considered here. 



Vegetable Marrow, 
{^Cticurhita ornfera.) 

The vegetable marrow is thought to be a variety of the 
common gourd {Cucurbita maxima)^ a plant which appears to 
have given rise also to the pumpkin and the squash. The 
vegetable marrow is now largely grown in England. It delights 
in a rich and open soil, with abundance of moisture. 

Although the fruit of the vegetable marrow is very watery, 
yet it contains more nutritive matter than its close ally, the 
cucumber. In vegetable marrows, when fit for cooking, starch 
as well as sugar occurs. 

Peeled and properly cooked, young vegetable marrows form 
a wholesome and agreeable food, of delicate flavour and pleasant 

Peeled vegetable marrows contain — 

In loo parts. 
Water 94*8 

Albuminoids, etc. 



Fat - 

Cellulose - 

Mineral matter 

The nutrient-ratio is here 1:5; the nutrient-value is 3j^. 



















French, Pommcs d^amcnir. German, Liebesdpfel. Italian, Pomodoru 

{^Lycopersicum esculentum.) 

The tomato, or love apple, is a plant belongmg to the Night- 
shade Order — an order which includes the potato, the capsicum, 
and tobacco. It is most probably a native of Mexico. 

The fruit of the tomato requires a good deal of heat to ripen 
It thoroughly. The plant should be trained on a sheltered wall 
They require good soil, and abundance of water. The tomato 


is now much more grown in England than formerly, several 
varieties, some with yellow and others with red fruit, being 

Ripe tomatoes, which have a pleasant acidulous taste, are 
used in salads as well as sauce, and in other ways with cooked 
meat. Unripe tomatoes make a good pickle. 

Ripe tomatoes contain — 

In loo parts. i" ^ '^ 

'^ 02. gr. 

Water 89-8 ... 14 161 

Albuminoids, etc. - « - - - 1*4 ... 098 

Sugar 60... o 420 

Malic acid 07 ... o 49 

Cellulose and pectose • - • - i'3 ... o 91 

Mineral matter O'S ... o 56 

The nutrient-ratio is here 1:5; the nutrient- value is 8^. 

Fungi and Mushrooms. 

Amongst the vascular cryptogams the common brake furnishes 
in some countries a valued article of food. In Japan, for 
instance, the tips of the fronds are gathered before they unroll 
to be used in soups, and as a green vegetable. In the autumn 
the roots of this fern are dug up and used as a source of starch. 
In the Canary Islands and in Australia the rhizomes of a 
closely-allied species of brake are also used as food. 

The nutrient-value of cryptogamic plants generally is ill 
understood; and especially is the real nature of the several 
constituents in the numerous kinds of fungi which have been 
eaten safely, still in some measure doubtful. A delicate and 
agreeable flavour is possessed by the common mushroom {Agariais 
campestris)^ and by several allied species — by the morel (Morchella 
esculentd)y and by the truffle, an underground species {Tuber 
cibariuni) ; but none of these plants can be regarded as substantive 
articles of diet. They are used chiefly as flavourers in the form 
of sauces, like ketchup, or, as in the case of truffles, as stuffing 



(or animal food. The truffle, it should be stated, is sought foj 
by means of dogs trained to scent it ; in France pigs are employed. 
Amongst other edible fungi (many of which are often called 
toadstools) may be named the champignon (Marasmius oreadcs), 
the chanterelle (Cantharellus ciharius), the orange agaric i^Lac- 
iarius deliciosus\ the edible boletus (^Boletus edulis)^ and many 
other species. But it is hazardous for persons who are not well 
acquainted with fungi to attempt to distinguish between those 
which are harmless and those which are poisonous. Serious and 
even fatal mistakes have thus arisen. We give some details 
concerning the common mushroom, as an example of this kind 
of food. 


French, Champignons, German, Schivdtnuie. Italian, Funghi, 

{Agaricus campestris.) 

This IS the fungus or mushroom generally eaten in England, 
although several other species are used as food on the Continent, 
and occasionally in this country also. 

The common mushroom, the champignon, and the morel, are 
nearly identical in chemical composition ; the truffle contains 
less water (73 per cent.) than the common agaric; and pro- 
portionately larger quantities of the various nutrients. Mushrooms 
are highly nitrogenous ; some kinds contain much fat or oil. 

Mushrooms may be stewed, boiled, or pickled. When salted 
and pressed, they yield ketchup, an agreeable sauce. 

The chief constituents of the common mushroom are— 

In 100 parts. 

Water • • • 
Albuminoids • - - 
Carbohydrates, digestible • 
Carbohydrates, indigestible 
Amides, etc. - . - 

90 o 


Mineral matter - • . . . . 07 













I 2 



Although several kinds of lichen have been turned to account 
in the arts (as in dyeing), very few are used as food. Tripe de 
roche, or rock tripe, is one of these, however — or we should say 
that the several plants to which this name is given have been 
occasionally used as food by distressed Arctic voyagers. Lung 
lichen {Sticta pulmonaria), several kinds of Pellidea, and the 
reindeer moss (Cladonia rangifertna)^ are also edible. But the 
best known of all these cryptogamic plants is the lichen com- 
monly called Iceland moss. It may be taken as illustrating the 
composition of all the edible species. 

Iceland Moss. 
( Cetra ria islandica . ) 

This plant is not a moss, but a lichen. It grows abundantly 
in high northern latitudes, upon otherwise barren rocks : it is 
also found in the mountainous districts of Great Britain, Ireland, 
and even of Southern Europe. 

Iceland moss is but little used in Iceland. "When employed 
there, it is ground, mixed with flour, and added to soups. 

Iceland moss chiefly consists of a substance called lichem'n, 
which closely resembles starch. One part of lichenin yields a jelly 
with twenty parts of boiling water. There is an acid in Iceland 
moss, to which its bitter taste is due j this may be removed by 
soaking the moss in a weak solution of carbonate of soda. 

Iceland moss yields much sugar when boiled with weak sul- 
phmic acid; the sugar thus formed may be fermented, and a 
spirit distilled from the fermented liquor. 

Iceland moss contains — 

Water . • - 
Albuminoids • 
Lichen-starch - 
Lichen-acids, etc. 
Cellulose . - - 
Mineral matter - 

The nutrient-ratio is here 

In TOO parts. 


















: 8 : the nutrient- value is 70. 

SEA- WEEDS. 117 


Seaweeds belong, like the fungi and the lichens, to the 
Cryptogamia, or flowerless plants. The exact nutritive value of 
those kinds which are eaten is not made out, but they are 
not capable alone of sustaining life for any length of time. They 
have proved useful in times of scarcity to the poorer inhabitants 
of some maritime countries; they have been used in Ireland 
when the potato crop has failed. But sea-weeds are rather to be 
regarded as occasional dainties, and as affording an agreeable 
substitute for ordinary vegetables. One kind described more 
fully further on, is made into a jelly for consumptive patients. 
Besides this we name — 

Laver or sloke {Porphyra laciniata and P. vulgaris) is found 
on the English coast. It is salted, and dressed with vinegar, 
pepper, and oil. 

Green laver (Ulva lactuca and U, latissima) resembles the 
purple laver, but is inferior. 

Tangle, or red ware, also called by other names, is Laminaria 
digitata and L. saccharina. It requires thorough boiling, and is 
then eaten with butter, pepper, and lemon-juice. 

Badderlochs, hen ware, honey ware, murlins {Alaria cscuknia). 
The part of the plant which is eaten is the thick midrib which 
runs through the frond, and the fruit-bearing appendages. 

The dulse of the south-west of England is the IriJcea edulis 
of botanists. It is said to resemble in its flavour roasted oysters. 

Dulse of the Scotch, dellisk, dellish, duileisg, water-leaf 
{Rhodymenia palmatd). The Icelanders use it as an article of 
diet, under the name of the sugar fucus. It is also used to 
flavour soups, ragouts, and other dishes. 

Several other sea-weeds are employed as food. Ceylon moss 
is Plocaria Candida, In China and Japan the people are very 
fond of sea-weeds, and many kinds are collected and added to 
soups, or are eaten with sauce. One of these, a species of Nostoc, 
the Plocaria tenax, is called Chinese moss. The Corsican moss 
should be Gracilaria Helminthocortony but is generally Laurencia 


ohtusa. It is found on the coasts of the Mediterranean. Anothei 
sea-weed was imported into London under the name of Australian 
moss (Eucheuma speciosum)^ but it tastes too strongly of the 
sea to be pleasant. Durvillcea utilis is another sea-weed, used 
at Valparaiso as food. Sphcerococcus lichenoides is found on the 
south coast of England, and has been used in pickles and 

The commonest edible sea-weed is called 

Irish Moss. 
{Chondrus crispus.) 

Irish moss (really a sea-weed) is one of the few :narine plants 
which is commonly used as human food in Europe. It is 
abundant on our rocky coasts. Irish moss is collected on the 
north and north-west shores of Ireland ; some is imported from 

The true Irish moss, or carraigeen, is Chondrus crispus^ but 
other species, such as Gigartina marmllosa, are frequently col- 
lected with it. Both these kinds, as well as several similar edible 
sea-weeds, have about the same nutritive value, which is con- 

The considerable variations in the percentage of albuminoids 
present shown by the published analyses (some being 2*2 only), 
arise from other species of sea-weed having been mistaken for the 
true Chondrus crispus. 

The chief constituent of Irish moss is a kind of mucilage, 
which dissolves to a stiff paste in boiling water. There is also a 
little iodine and much sulphur in it. Before boihng it in water or 
milk, Irish moss should be soaked in cold water for an hour 
or so. 

Irish moss is used as a food, and as a remedy in chest 
diseases. It is sometimes given to farm animals. 


Irish moss, as sold, generally contains — 


100 parts. 


» • >* 


Albuminoids, etc. 

• « • 


Mucilage, etc. - 

• • 


Cellulose • 

■ • • 


Mineral matter - 

• • « 













2 119 

The nutrient-ratio is here i '. S% '> ^^^^ nutrient- value is 64. 


Salad plants are very numerous ; but in former times many 
green vegetables were eaten uncooked which are now entirely 
forgotten. In 1669, Evelyn gave a list of 73 plants so used. His 
"Discourse of Sallets" includes a large number of weeds, the 
present neglect of which is not to be regretted; yet some few of 
the green, fresh herbs which he names, might be introduced again 
with advantage. In France, the variety of salads in common use 
is much greater than in England, and it must be added, that the 
skill in preparing them lor consumption is more marked. Too 
much care cannot be bcstowedjn the thorough cleansing of salad 
herbs, especially in the case of watercresses, with which many 
internal parasitic or entozoal animals are often introduced into the 
human body. The greater part of the water adhering to the 
leaves, etc., should then be removed, either by means of pressure 
between absorbent cloths, or by enclosing the salad materials in a 
net, or in a vessel of wire-netting, and then swinging this round in 
the air so as to drive out the water centrifugally. Salad plants 
generally contain but little nourishing food of the heat-giving and 
flesh-forming kinds. But they are useful as being comparatively 
rich in saline matters, especially in potash salts, which are gene- 
rally extracted from cooked vegetables in the process of boiling. 
They serve also to introduce large quantities of water into the 
system, and are refreshing additions to richer foods, especially in 
hot weather, when their ** crisp, cool succulence" is peculiarly 


acceptable. In order to be thus juicy and crisp, lettuces and 
other salads, such as cucumbers, must not be gathered when 
wilted and drooping after a hot day ; too often this is the case, or 
else subsequent partial drying causes toughness. To obviate 
this defect, the root of lettuce or celery, etc., after having been 
dug up and washed, should be trimmed under water, so as not to 
expose the cut stem or leaf-stalks to the air. The plants will 
then, if left in the water, imbibe more fluid very readily till their 
tissues are well filled. The stalk of the cucumber should be cut 
under water, and remain in it just in the same way. In addition 
to lettuce, celery, watercress, and cucumber, which are more fully 
described further on, the following salad plants may be here 
noted : 

Cress {Lepidium sativum) is a small, cruciferous annual, 
probably a native of Persia. Its seeds may be grown very readily 
upon any moist surface, and are commonly sown with those of 
white mustard, to yield the familiar spring salad known as mustard 
and cress. 

The Radish (Raphanus saiivus), like most cruciferous plants, 
has a pungent taste. When small and quickly grown, it is adapted 
for use in salads. It may be cooked with advantage. 

'Ejii'DiWE {Cichorium Endivia) belongs to the Composite: it is 
a native of Northern China. It is much used in salads, but its 
leaves, even when blanched, are rather bitter. It contains in loo 
parts, 94 of water, i of albuminoids, i of sugar, 2 of pectose and 
starch, o*6 of cellulose, and o'8 of mineral matter. 

Succory or Chicory {Cichorium Intyhus) is a wild English 
plant, near the endive. Its leaves, when blanched, are used as 

Borage is Borago officinalis; it is used in claret and cider cups 
chiefly. Its leaves have a taste resembling that of cucumber. 

Burnet {Poierium Sanguisorba) belongs to the Rosacem ; its 
leaves, like those of borage, have much the taste of cucumber, 
and are used similarly. 

CELERY, 121 

Samphire (Crithmum mariiimum) is an aromatic and saline 
umbelliferous plant, common on many sea shores and cliffs. Once 
it was much used in salads ; now its leaves, gathered in May, are 
employed only in pickles. 

Sorrel {Rumex scutatus)^ a hardy perennial, native of Southern 
Europe, is much grown in France as a salad herb. The English 
species (R, acetosa and R, acetosella) are less juicy and more sour. 
All the kinds of sorrel contain oxalic acid and oxalates in 

Other leaves used in salads are those of the nettle (Urtica 
dioicii) \ of the Dandelion {Leontodon taraxacum) ; of the Plantain 
{Pla?itago major) ; of Poriulaca oleracea; and of Chejwpodium album. 

Beet Root has been already described (p. 104). 

A fair idea of the composition of the fresh and juicy vegetables 
commonly used as salads may be gathered from the four following 
analyses. It is necessary to state, however, that the flavour of 
these plants, depending, as it generally does, upon traces of 
volatile oils too small to be weighed, is not explained by the 
figures representing the chief components of these vegetables. 


French, Celeri. German, Sellerie. Italian, Sedano. 

{Apium graveolens.) 

Celery is a native biennial umbellifer, common in sandy 
marshes. The wild plant has a very strong and disagreeable taste 
and smell ; the cultivated varieties are tender, mild, and succulent, 
when earthed up and supplied with abundance of water. The 
blanched leaf-stalks of celery are eaten uncooked, as a salad herb, 
and are also introduced into soups ; they may also be stewed in 
the same manner as onions or sea-kale. The fruits of celery con- 
tain more than the other parts of the plant of the peculiar essential 
oil to which its characteristic odour and flavour are due. The 
quantity of this oil in celery as eaten is too minute to be repre- 
sented in the analysis. 



Celery, it will be seen, contains some sugar. Freshly-cut stalks 
of celery have the following composition : — 

Water - • • - 

Albuminoids • - - 
Other nitrogen-compounds 
Mucilage and starch - 

Sugar - - . - 

Cellulose - - • « 
Mineral matter - 

The nutrient-ratio is here i 

In loo parts. 
























4^ ; the nutrient- value is under 5. 


French, Laitue. German, Lattick. Italian, Laituga, 

{Lacluca sativa.) 

The cultivated lettuce may have originated from a wild form, 
a native of India or Central Asia. 

The lettuce is the most generally used of all the vegetables 
which are eaten in the uncooked state. The varieties grown may 
be included in the cos or upright lettuce, and the cabbage or 
spreading lettuce. 

Lettuces contain but little nutriment of any kind, except 
mineral salts, especially nitre. This and other soluble salts are 
removed from vegetables which require cooking by the water in 
which they are boiled. A small quantity of a sleep-producing 
substance, called laciucarin, is found in the stem of the lettuce, 
particularly when thp plant is flowering. 

Lettuces are a refreshing addition to more solid food. 

The lettuce contains — 

In 100 parts. 


I '6 

Water - 
Albuminoids, etc. 
Starch, sugar, and gum 
Leaf-green and fat - 
Cellulose - - - 
Mineral matter - 




I lb. 










The quantity of carbonaceous and nitrogenous nutrients in the 
lettuce is insignificant. 


French, Cresson (Teau. German, Wasserkresse, Italian, Crescione. 

{Nasturtimn officinale.) 

The watercress is a native cruciferous plant, which grows freely 
in wet places, especially in shallow streams. It is one of the most 
popular and most wholesome of all salad plants. It is generally 
assumed to owe its pungent taste and medicinal value to the 
presence of an essential oil, containing, like that of mustard, a 
considerable quantity of sulphur. But it has been shown that the 
chief constituent of the essential oil of watercress, though rich in 
nitrogen, contains no sulphur ; there is, however, much sulphur, 
in one form or another, in this plant. Watercress is also remark- 
able for the quantity of mineral matter which is found in it. 

The younger shoots of the watercress should be selected ; they 
have a pleasant acidulous yet warm taste. Great care should be 
taken that they are perfectly clean and free from adhering animal 

Watercress contains — 

In loo parts. ^^ ' ^^• 

*^ oz. gr. 

Water 93-1 ... 14 392 

Albuminoids 07 ... o 49 

Starch, gum, etc. 37 ... o 259 

Leaf-green and fat 0*5 ... o 35 

Cellulose 07 ... o 49 

Mineral matter • 1*3 ... o 91 

The dietetic value of the v/atercress cannot be judged of by 
the proportion or amount of organic nutrients present, as it 
depends mainly upon the mineral matters, aromatic oil, and 
other minor ingredients. 

French, Concombres, German, Gurken, Italian, Cetriuoli. 

{Cucumts sativus.) 
The cucumber, like the melon, the vegetable marrow and the 
pumpkin, is a tropical plant, belonging to the Gourd Order 



These plants flourish best in a rich but open soil ; they 
require much water. When the fruit of the cucumber is grown 
quickly under glass it is more juicy and digestible than when 
grown slowly in the open air. 

Young cucumbers are pickled in vinegar, and are known as 

The rind of the cucumber fruit is indigestible. The fruit 
itself contains little else besides water, some grape sugar, and a 
trace of volatile flavouring matter. 

Peeled cucumbers contain — 

In TOO parts 

Water - 

96 "2 

Albuminoids, etc. 


Sugar (glucose) 


Pectose and gum 


Cellulose - - • 

• o'S 

Mineral matter - 






... 15 







§ 5.— Saccharine Fruits. 

Many of the vegetable products in this section are esteemed 
rather for their pleasant or refreshing taste than for any nutritive 
value which they may be assumed to possess. But though this 
is the case in our country, the statement is not true generally. 
The banana and the fig, among fruits rich in sugar, and the 
coco-nut, among those which abound in oil, are of vital import- 
ance as substantive articles of diet to the populations of many 
countries, where the fruits we have just named may be grown 
easily and abundantly. But, of course, there are some fruits 
which could never prove of much service as food, owing to the 
large quantities of water and the small quantities of flesh-forming 
matter which characterise the more juicy and succulent sorts. 
Vet such fruits are especially valuable on account of their potash 
ialts, the citrate, malate, and tartrate. When fish or meat which 
has been preserved with common salt, the chloride of sodium^ 

FRUITS, 125 

forms the chief article of- diet, the blood loses much of \\% potash 
compounds, and becomes unhealthy, unless the loss be made up. 
Now, fresh vegetables and fruits, notably the lemon and the lime, 
effect this, for the reason above stated. But fruits have a positive 
nutritive value, if a small one ; and besides that, their flavour and 
juiciness may serve to stimulate a weak appetite, to give variety 
and lightness to an otherwise solid diet, and to contribute, in a 
palatable and refreshing form, much of the water required for the 
daily needs in digestion and assimilation. 

In the analyses of fruits which are here given, we have not 
pretended to enter into all those differences, often very minute, 
which distinguish fruits from one another. Sometimes the scent 
and flavour of a fruit altogether defy the powers of chemical 
analysis ; sometimes the same odorous substance is detected in 
two products of decidedly different fragrance. And then so much 
of the character of fruits depends upon their texture — a quality 
that cannot be analysed— that we must rest content with a rather 
imperfect account of the chief nutrients and characteristic com- 
pounds present. It should be added, that many fruits contain 
when ripe/tY//>/, the jelly-like substance into which the pectose of 
unripe fruits is changed ; that most fruits, especially those which 
are soft and watery, rapidly suffer decay and fermentation ; that 
the substances to which fruits owe their colour are insignificant 
in amount, and of no known dietetic importance ; and that the 
changes which succulent fruits undergo, and the frequent presence 
of much acid or acid-salt in them, render them liable to cause, 
especially when unripe or over-ripe, diarrhoea and other derange- 
ments of the digestive tract. Irritation, and even fatal inflamma- 
tion of the intestine, have resulted from the indigestible skins of 
certain fruits, as plums. 

A few examples only of characteristic and important fruits 
containing sugar can be described in these psges. The apple 
and pear may take precedence ; and then we may consider other 

126 APPLES. 

fruits which are natives of this country, or ripen in our climate. 
Foreign fruits will afterwards be noticed, especially those which — 
like oranges, grapes, and figs — are imported in large quantities 
into Great Britain. No strict arrangement, either botanical or 
chemical, will be followed. 


French. Pommes. German, Apfd, Italian, Mele, 

(Pyrus Mains.) 

The apple — like the pear, the quince, and the medlar — 
belongs to the Rose Order. The numerous varieties of culti- 
vated apples have sprung from the wild apple or crab, a native of 
Great Britain. The apple is one of the hardiest of trees, but the 
fruit requires a considerable degree of summer heat to bring it to 
perfection. In the southern hemisphere, as in New Zealand and 
Australia, it ripens well ; yet good English apples have not been 
excelled in flavour and firmness. 

The fermented liquor called cider is made from the expressed 
juice of apples. This fruit is also extensively used in pies, 
puddings, sauces, and confectionery. Dried or pressed apples 
are known as Normandy pippins, Norfolk biffins, etc. 

The apple is an agreeable fruit ; it is made very wholesome 
by baking or boiling. 

Apples contain a small quantity of a fragrant essential oil, not 
represented in the following analysis : — 

In xoo parts. ^^^^^;^ 

Water - - - - • - - 83*0 ... 13 122 

Albuminoids, etc - • - • • 0*4 ,^ o 28 

Sugar - . . - - - . 6*8 ... i 39 

Malic acid i "o ... o 70 

Pectose, pectin, and gum - - - 5*2 ... o 364 

Cellulose ------ 3*2 ... o 224 

Mineral matter 0*4 ... o 28 

The nutrient-ratio is here i : 27 3 the nutrient- value is 11%. 




French, Poires, German, Birnen, Italian, Pcre, 
{Pyrus communis.) 

The pear, like the apple, the quince, and the medlar, belong? 
to a section of the Rose Order, called Po?nacece. The wild pear- 
tree is a native of England ; it is the origin of the many improved 
kinds now in cultivation. 

Some pears are hard and tasteless when gathered, requiring 
to be stored several months before they become fit for eating. 
Other varieties ripen early, and very soon afterwards begin to 
decay. Some pears are adapted for baking, others for stewing. 
From some kinds the strong fermented liquor known as perry is 

An artificial *' Essence of Jargonelle Pears *' is much used for 
flavouring ** pear-drops," and other sweetmeats ; it is a solution in 
spirit of amyl acetate. It is thought that the flavour of pears is 
partly due to this substance. 

Pears contain — 

In I03 parts. 

In I lb. 
oz. gr. 


. 84-0 

• •• 

13 193 

Albuminoids, etc. 

. . 0^ 

• • 



- ^ TO 

» t 

I 52 

Malic acid 


• • 


Pectose and gum 

. . 4-6 

• • 


Cellulose - 

• - 37 



Mineral matter - 

r • » 


• •1 


The Quince {Cydonia vulgaris) is a native of Southern Europe. 
Its strongly-flavoured fruits are sometimes added to apple-pies and 
puddings; they make an excellent marmalade, and also a very 
agreeable jelly. Quince seeds are rich iii mucilage. 

The Medlar {Pyrus gerfnanica) is a common European plant 
Its iruit is not eatable until it has undergone a singular natural 
change, which is not in reality a process of decay ; this, however, 
soon afterwardb *-akes place. 




French, Groseilles. German, Stachelheeren, Italian, Uve spine. 

{Ribes Grosstilaria.) 

The gooseberry grows wild in Great Britain and in many parts 
of Northern Europe. It belongs to the same order of plants as 
the red currant and the black currant. Numerous varieties of the 
gooseberry have arisen in cultivation. The fruits of these sorts 
do not differ much in chemical composition, although unlike in 
size, colour, and flavour. 

In the North of England this fruit is extensively cultivated, 
and has been brought to a great degree of perfection. It is a 
wholesome fruit, especially when cooked; it makes a good pie- 
serve and a tolerable wine. Large quantities of gooseberries are 
bottled for winter use. 

The gooseberry contains from 6 to 8 per cent, of sugar, 
together with about i ^ per cent, of citric and malic acids. 

Gooseberries contain, as an average — 


Citric acid 
Pectose and gum 
Cellulose - 
Mineral matter • 

In loo parts. 




• 0-5 














The nutrient-ratio is here about 1:20; the nutrient-value is 9. 

The Black Currant is Ribes nigrum^ while the Red and 
White Currant both belong to another species, R. rubrum, 
Cultivation has greatly improved the quality and increased the 
size of these fruits. Many varieties of red currant are grown. 
In composition these fruits do not differ much from the goose- 
berry. They are not nearly related to the small dry fruits called 
currants, which are produced by a small vine. 

The Strawberry, though containing more water (89 per cent.) 
than the gooseberry or the currant, has a richer fragrance and 

GRAPES. »29 

flavour. The cultivated varieties have arisen from several species 
of Fragraria^ but mainly from the wild F, vesca^ the common 
strawberry of our English woods. 

The Raspberry (Rubus idceus) is a native of Britain. Several 
varieties of the cultivated plant are grown, the fruits being either 
red or pale amber. From the raspberry, as well as from the 
gooseberry and currant, jam, jelly, and wine of good quality are 
made. Strawberries are often preserved with sugar, but this fruit 
is perhaps better appreciated as a dessert fruit. 

The Blackberry (Rubus fruticosiis) and the •Dewberri 
i^R. ccBsius) are wild fruits which would repay cultivation. The 
flavour of some of the wild sorts is decidedly superior to that of 
others, and these may be made to yield a good preserve and a 
full-flavoured wine. 

The Barberry {Berberis vulgaris) is a native of Britain. Its 
bright red fruit has an acid taste, but makes a pleasant preserve. 

The Bearberry (Arctostaphylos uva-ursi) is a British plant 
belonging to the Heath Order. Its red berries are eaten by grouse. 

The Bilberry (Vacciniutn myrtillus) and Whortleberry 
(y, uliginosum) are common in many woods. Their fruits may 
be made into a preserve. 

The Cranberry (Oxy coccus palustris and O. macrocarpus) is 
nearly related to the bilberry. The fruits of several species are 
used in the form of jams and in tarts. Large quantities of cran- 
berries are imported from Russia and North America ; they keep 
well for a long time without undergoing fermentation. 

The Elderberry is the fruit of Sambucus nigra^ a. native tree. 
A richly-flavoured wine is made from elderberries. 

Frencn, Raisiiis. German, IVemirauben, Italian, Uve. 

( Vitis vinifera.) 
The vine was very probably originally a native of Western 
Asia and the region sourh of the Caspian. It is profitably grown 
between 30° and 40° north latitude. 



By long-continued cultivation of the original plant in different 
soils and climates, numerous varieties of the vine have arisen. 
Most of these kinds are grown for wine- making in France, Ger- 
many, Southern Europe, the Cape, Australia, etc. The fruits of 
some varieties are simply dried. These are known as Valentia, 
muscatel, and sultana raisins — the last, from Turkey, have no 
seeds. Raisins are rich in sugar. The dried currants of the 
shops are merely very small raisins from a variety of the vine 
grown in the Ionian Isles; they are indigestible. In the year 
1901 there were imported into the United Kingdom 48,011 tons 
of these currants, as well as 26,100 tons of raisins. 

Fresh ripe grapes contain much sugar, sometimes nearly 
20 per cent. The acid of grapes is chiefly tartaric, part of which 
is combined with potash. 

Fresh grapes, of average quality, contain — 

In 100 parts. 

Water - - 8o'0 

Albuminoids 07 

Sugar (glucose) - - - - - 13*0 

Tartaric acid 0'8 

Pectose and gum 3*1 

Cellulose - - 2*0 

Mineral matter - • • - • - 0*4 

The nutrient-ratio is here i : 20; the nutrient- value is 16. 

Plums, etc. 

The cherry, the plum, the apricot, and the peach are the 
chief " stone-fruits." They all belong to the same section {Dru- 
paceci) of the Rose Order, and are characterised by the presence 
of a hard seed with a fleshy pericarp. This seed contains an 
edible kernel, generally rich in oil, and having an aromatic some- 
^vhat bitter taste. 

The cherry is Prunus Cerasus, This fruit is generally richer 
in sugar than many other fruits which ripen in this country, often 
containing 10 per cent, and sometimes more. One variety rather 















less sweet, the morello, is specially used in preparing the liqueur 
cherry brandy. 

Many kinds of plums {Prunus domestica)^ as damsons, prunes, 
French plums, greengages, are now extensively grown here or on 
the Continent. In Bosnia, for instance, the most important crop 
is the plum. In good seasons no less than 40,000 tons, worth 
;^'2co,ooo, of the dried fruits are exported, chiefly to Germany 
and Austria-Hungary. There is less sugar in plums generally 
than in cherries, but they contain a very large amount of pectose 
and pectin, the chief substances to which the gelatinizing cha- 
racter of these fruits is due. In the greengage, for instance, 
Fresenius found ij^ per cent, of sugar only, but not less than 
loj^ per cent, of pectous substances, or vegetable jelly. 

The peach is here described more at length, as an example of 
this class of fruits, which, it must be noted, are generally less 
wholesome than most of those already considered in these pages. 


French, P^ches. German, Pjirstche. Italian, Pesche. 

(Pru7iu5 persica.) 

The peach and the nectarine are produced by varieties of the 
same tree. It belongs to the almond group of the Rose Order. 

The peach is now grown in many temperate climates. American 
peaches are said to be inferior to the English in richness of 
flavour ; they are imported into this country dried, and also in 

The kernels of peach-stones yield an oil identical with that of 
bitter almonds ; they are used in flavouring liqueurs. There is 
not much nutritive matter in tne peach, but it is an agreeable and 
refreshing fruit. The quantity of sugar it contains is but small, 
yet the acid present is masked by much vegetable jelly, included 
in tne analysis below under *' pectin and gum.*' The skin of the 
peach is indigestible. 

K 2 



Peaches contain, after removal of the stones- 


Albuminoids • 
Malic acid 
Pectin and gum 
Cellulose - 
Mineral matter - 

In loo parts. 


















Apricots (the fruit of Prunus armeniaca) closely resemble 
peaches and nectarines in composition, but generally contain 
rather less water and rather more sugar and pectin. 

{Rheuiti rhaponU'cufn.) 

Although used as a fruit, it is scarcely necessary to say that 
rhubarb is the stalk or petiole of the leaf. The plant furnishing 
this agreeable and succulent food is a hardy perennial, from the 
Volga river, and has been grown in this country since 1573. 
There are several varieties of Rheum rhaponticutn in cultivation, 
and it is possible that R. undulaium may also be amongst the 
different kinds of rhubarb in use. The rhubarb belongs to the 
Buckwheat Order {PolygonacecB). 

The agreeable taste and odour of rhubarb are not brought out 
till the leaf-stalks are cooked. But when the expressed juice of 
these is allowed to ferment, it yields, with proper treatment, a 
delicious wine. The chief nutrient in rhubarb is the sugar 
(glucose), which amounts to about 2 parts in 100 of the fresh 
stalks. Its sour taste is due to oxalic acid, or rather to the 
acid oxalate of potash ; oxalate of lime is also present. There 
are some conditions of the human body (the oxalic-acid diathesis) 
in which it is probably wiser to avoid eating rhubarb and other 
plants, as sorrel, in which oxalic compounds predominate. 

The composition of the freshly-cut leaf-stalks of a red variety 



of rhubarb which had been grown in the open air, and were in 
good condition for use, is here shown : — 

Water - - - 
Albuminoids, etc. 
Sugar (glucose) and gum 
Oxalic acid 
Cellulose - - - 
Mineral matter* • 

Composition of Rhubarb. 

In icK> parts. 
















As I lb. of rhubarb contains less than i oz. of solid matter, 
and as even of this solid matter more than one quarter is not 
nutritive, it is obvious that the food value of this vegetable is very 
small. It is, indeed, esteemed mainly for its pleasant flavour, 
which is due to a trace of some volatile matter, too small to be 
identified, along with a little grape sugar and the acidulous com- 
pound already mentioned. 

Figs and dates next claim attention. They are imported in a 
partially dried condition, and consequently are far more nutri- 
tious, weight for weight, than any of the fresh fruits we have been 

Figs. I 

French, Figues, German, Feigen, Italian, Flchi, 

(Ficus carica.) 

The Fig Order includes several important trees, such as the 
mulberry and the banyan : one kind of fig-tree {F. elastica) yields 
much of the india-rubber of commerce. The sycamore fig is a 
small fruit, common in Egypt, from another species {F, sycomorus). 

The edible fig is a native of the Eastern Aral, the Caucasus, 
Syria, Persia, Asia Minor, and perhaps of South-Eastern Europe 
and Northern Africa ; it has been long grown in the regions of 
the Mediterranean. The average weight of Italian dried figs is 


















134 DATES, 

about half that of those of Smyrna. The fig is cultivated with 
success in warm and sheltered situations in the South of England. 

Large quantities of dried and pressed figs are imported into 
England (7,477 tons in 1901). They contain much sugar, and 
but little water. The numerous so-called seeds in the fig are 
indigestible, and sometimes have an irritant action. 

Dried Turkey or Smyrna figs contain — 

, In icxj parts. 

Water .-....- 17-5 

Albuminoids, etc. • - • - - 6'i 

Sugar (glucose) - - • - * 60*5 

Pectose and gum • - - - . 5*4 

Fat 0*9 ... 

Cellulose --••--- 7'3 ... 

Mineral matter 2.3 

The nutrient-ratio is here 1:10; the nutrient-value is 68. 

Mulberries are the fruit of a beautiful tree (Morus nigra) 
belonging to the Fig Order, of Western Asia, extensively grown in 
Europe. Mulberries contain more acid than most dessert fruits, 
but possess a very characteristic flavour. 


French, Dattes. German, Datteln. Italian, Datteru 

(^Phcenix dactylifera.) 

Dates are the fruit of a palm. The tree has been introduced 
into Southern Europe, but it is a native of North Africa. The 
cultivation of the date-palm is of great antiquity. 

The fruits of this palm grow in clusters, weighing 20 lb. or 
more ; they form an important food in Egypt and Arabia. Dates 
pounded and pressed into a kind of cake are much used by the 
inhabitants of Northern Africa, and by travellers through the 
Sahara Desert. 

Dates contain more than half their weight of sugar, but there 
is a fair amount of flesh-formers present as well. 



Dates, without the stone, contain- 


Albuminoids, etc 

Pectose and gum 
Fat - 

Cellulose - 
Mineral matter - 

In loo parts. 

20 -8 

54 'o 



















The nutrient-ratio is here i : 9>^ ; the nutrient- value is 68. 


(Musa sapientum.) 

The banana is the fruit of a handsome plant, grown almost 
everywhere in the tropics ; it is a most important article of food 
in many hot countries. Bananas have been cultivated in India 
and China from very remote ages. Another species or variety of 
this plant {M. paradisiacd) yields the plantain, a fruit almost 
identical with the banana. 

The banana is a nutritious food, having less water and more 
nitrogenous matter than is commonly found in fresh fruits. It 
contains, when ripe, much sugar. 

The banana is a very productive plant. Its fruit grows in 
clusters of 100 to 200 ; a bunch of them will often weigh 50 lb. 
In 1 90 1 no fewer than 2,228,672 bunches were imported into this 
country ; also some dried meal of unripe bananas. 

Fresh-peeled bananas contain — 

In 100 parts. 

In I lb. 

oz. gr. 

Water - 

- 73-9 

II 361 

Albuminoids, etc. 



Sugar and pectose - 

- 228 

3 283 

Fat - 



Cellulose - 



Mineral matter - 



The nutrient-ratio is here i : 14; the nutrient-value is 24. 

Our next fruit is scarcely used at all in this country, except 
as food for cattle and horses; but it is of interest as a legume 
containing much sugar. 

136 ORAA^GES. 

Carob Beans. 
(Cerafo?2ta si //qua.) 

Carob beans or locust beans, called also algaroba and St. 
John's bread, are really entire pods, not merely beans or seeds. 
They are the fruit of a leguminous tree, a native of Africa, and 
grown at Amalfi, Sorrento, Monaco, and many districts of South 
Italy and the Levant. This tree has a dense crown of evergreen 

Carob pods contain a soft pulp, rich in sugar ; they are b> 
no means deficient in flesh-formers. They are used chiefly for 
feeding cattle in England, but in some of the countries border- 
ing on the Mediterranean they are employed also as human 
food. They contain a small quantity of a peculiar volatile acid, 
known as butyric acid— this gives them a rather rancid smell. 
Carob pods attract moisture from the air, and are liable to 
become mouldy on keeping. 

Imported carob pods, as met with in the London market, 

contain — 

T , In I r . 

In loo parts ^^ ^ 

Water I4'6 ... 2 147 

Albumen - - 7'i ... i 60 

Sugar - - - * • - - - 51-8 ... 8 126 

Pectose and gum - - - - « i6'i ... 2 252 

Fat IT ... o 77 

Cellulose 6*4 ... i 10 

Mineral matter 2*9 ... o 203 

The nutrient-ratio is here 1:8^; the nutrient-value is 68. 

French, Oranges, German, Apfelsinen, Italian, Mclaranci. 

(Citrus Aurantium.) 

The tree which yields this delicious and wholesome fruit is a 
native of India, but it has been long grown in Southern Europe. 
Many varieties exist, as the mandarin orange (var. nobilis)^ with an 
easily detached and very fragrant rind ; the Malta blood orange 


(var. tnelitina\ with red flesh; and the bergamot, which yields 
an essential oil much used in perfumery. The bitter or 
Seville orange {^Citrus Aurantiuniy var. Bigaradid)) the lime 
(C. Limcttd)\ the citron (C medica, var. acida)\ the lemon (C, 
medica^ var. Litnoniuti) ; the shaddock, pomaloe, or forbidden 
fruit (C. dgcuma/ia); and the cumquat (C. Aurantiiim var. 
japonica\ much resembling the lime, all belong to the same 
genus, and are all characterised by the presence of similar 
fragrant essential oils in the peel or rind, and by varying quantities 
of citric acid, citrate of potash, and sugar in their fleshy pulp. 
Besides the flavours they impart to other foods, many of the 
fruits we have named are of direct alimentary and medicinal 
value. The orange and its various products, in the form of 
orange marmalade (into which Seville oranges are generally 
introduced), orange wine, and candied orange-peel are the best 
known. This fruit is imported into England in vast quantities 
from Spain and Italy. From Florida in the United States good 
fruit is now sent. The orange can, however, be enjoyed in 
perfection only when taken perfectly ripe from the tree. The 
imported fruits are always gathered in an unripe state. The 
orange-tree yields another essential oil besides that in the 
fruit — the oil of neroli being obtained from orange-flowers. 
The tree is evergreen, and its rich, green, glossy leaves, and 
golden fruit, form a beautiful feature in the landscape of many 
parts of Italy, 

An orange of good quality should not lose more than one-fifth 
its weight by the removal of the peel. The peeled fruit contains 
about 86 per cent, of water; 8*3 per cent, of sugar; i per cent, 
of albuminoids; 1*5 per cent, of cellulose; 0*5 per cent, of 
mineral matter ; 2 per cent, of pectose and mucilage ; and small 
quantities of citric acid and citrate of potash. 

Whole lemons contain in 100 parts — 817 water; o'8 albumi- 
noids; I 'I essential oil ; 5*0 citric acid; i'3 sugar; 5*3 pectose 
and mucilage; 3*4 cellulose; and 1*4 mineral matter. 


We shall have to recur to the subject of the Orange Order 
when discussing the "flavourers,"in the Fourth Part of this book, 
on Food Adjuncts. 

The pomegranate {Pumca Granafum),\hQ prickly pear {Opuniia 
vulgaris), the jak fruit of Ceylon {Artocarptts integrifolia), the 
bread-fruit of the Moluccas and other islands {Artocarpus incisd), 
the tamarind, the mangosteen, and many other fruits, which we 
have no space to describe, are of considerable importance in 
different parts of the world — some of these fruits forming the 
chief sustenance of large populations. Among them, mention 
should be made of the pine-apple {Bromelia Ananas), which of 
late years, through the large importations of these fruits from the 
West Indian Islands, has become familiar and generally accessible. 
Originally of Brazilian origin, this plant has rapidly spread in 
many tropical countries. It has been grown in England for 

200 years. 

§ 6. — Nuts and Oily Fruits. 

The chestnut is so rich in starch, and contains so little oil or 
fat, that it might have been included amongst the bread-stuffs. 
It is the produce of Castanea sativa, the sweet or Spanish 
chestnut tree, a native of Western Asia. Large quantities are 
imported from Spain and Italy, where, as in Southern Europe 
generally, it forms an important article of food. Its meal is made 
into cakes, or the nuts are boiled or roasted. A sample of 
Italian chestnut-flour of the first quality was analysed, with the 
result that the presence of large quantities of dextrin and sugar 
were discovered therein. The percentages of the several con- 
stituents were — 

Water 14-0 

Albuminoids, etc. 8*5 

Starch 29-9 

Dextrin 229 

Sugar 17*5 

Oil 1*3 

Cellulose - - - - - - - -33 

Mineral matter • • • - - • • 2*6 


Whether this flour had been previously submitted to any process 
of fermentation or roasting, which might account for these high 
amounts of dextrin and of sugar, could not be ascertained ; there 
is, however, very good reason to conclude that they are natural 
constituents of the chestnut kernel. It may be added that these 
kernels, in their perfectly ripe but quite fresh condition, contain 
about half their weight of water. 

In the oily seeds or nuts which are now to be described we 
have food-products of very great value. They contain little or no 
starch, but much nitrogenous or albuminoid matter, together with, 
in many cases, 50 per cent, of fixed oil or fat. They are rather 
rich food, and somewhat difficult of digestion, unless ground into 
meal, or cooked, or mixed with lighter kinds of food. The oil in 
some nuts is very liable to become rancid and unwholesome. We 
select for description the walnut, the filbert, the almond, and two 
or three other well-known kinds. 


French, Noix. German, Wallnusse, Italian, Noci, 

{Julians regia.) 

The walnut-tree is a native of the Himalaya, Persia, and the 
southern provinces of the Caucasus. It was introduced into 
Greece and Italy some centuries before the Christian era. The 
walnut is now grown throughout temperate Europe. 

Unripe walnut fruits, when the shell is still soft, make an 
excellent pickle; a delicate sweetmeat is prepared by boiling 
them in sirup. 

Walnuts contain a sweet oil much used in Southern Europe 
for food, and, under the name of nut-oil, for painting. The marc 
of walnut-kernels, or walnut cake, is a good cattle food. 

Walnuts in the shell yield one-third their weight (about 36 per 



cent.) of peeled kernels, which are the crumpled cotyledons, or 
seed-leaves. These when quite fresh contain — 


Mucilage, etc. 
Oil - 
Cellulose - 
Mineral matter 

In loo parts. 



31 -6 



In X lb. 
Kn. gr. 









The nutrient-ratio is here i : 6*5 ; the nutrient-value 94. 

The Hazel-Nut, the Filbert, and the Cobnut are pro- 
duced by Corylus avellana, and the cultivated varieties of this 
native tree. The best hazel-nuts come from Spain, and are 
known as Barcelona nuts. Cobnuts and filberts are largely grown 
in Kent. Fine filberts, freshly gathered and ripe, contain rather 
more than half their weight of edible kernel. This, if analysed 
before drying, just as it is taken from the shell, gives the following 

results : — 

Composition of Filbert-Kernels. 

In zoo parts. 

Water - 
Albuminoids • 
Oil - 

Mucilage, starch, etc. 
Cellulose - 
Mineral matter • 


8 '4 
II 'I 



In I lb. 
oz. gr. 









The nutrient-ratio here is i : 9 j the nutrient-value is 85. 

Another well-known oily nut is the Sweet Almond, the 
produce of a small Mediterranean tree (Pru?ius communis)^ belong- 
ing to a section of the Rose Order. The so-called Jordan 
almonds come from Malaga. In 1901 there were imported into 
the United Kingdom 111,322 hundredweights of almonds, chiefly 
from Italy, Spain, Morocco, France, and Portugal. The almond 
does not ripen properly in this country. The brown coat of the 
almond kernel is indigestible, and should be removed by pouring 
boiling water on the kernels and peeling them. Almonds 
correspond in general character to filbert-kernels, but are much 
drier when imported than when gathered. 



00 puts. 

In z lb. 
oz. gr. 






8 280 


I 192 





Composition of Sweet Almonds (shelled). 



Albuminoids, etc. • • . . . 


Mucilage, etc. .--..- 
Cellulose --.•••- 
Mineral matter -••-.- 

The nutrient-ratio is here about 1:5^^, and the nutrient- 
value 158. But as these kernels do not really contain more 
than 20 per cent, of true albuminoids, the above figures should 
probably be reduced to i : 6>^ and 153 respectively. 

The bitter almond is produced by a mere variety of the same 
tree, but it contains a peculiar ferment called emulsin, which is 
capable of changing a nitrogenous matter known as amygdalin, 
present in the bitter almond and the sweet, into prussic acid, the 
essential oil of bitter almonds, and glucose. This change occurs 
when bitter almond meal is mixed with water and gently warmed. 

The Ground-Nut, or pea-nut {Arachts hypog(za\ though an 
oily seed, really belongs to the leguminous plants, and has been 
already described in the section on pulse. In addition to 50 per 
cent, of oil it contains about the same amount of nitrogenous 
matter (24*5 per cent.) which usually occurs in beans and peas. 

The Pistachio-Nut {Pistacia vera) is the produce of a small 
Mediterranean tree. The fruit resembles a small almond, but has 
a bright green kernel, which owes its colour to chlorophyll, or 
leaf-green. The kernels possess* a taste not unlike that of the 
sweet almond; they are much used in French confectionery. 
The following analysis represents the 

Composition of Pistachio-Kernels. 

Id 100 parts. 

Albuminoids - 

oa - - . 

Mucilage, etc. - 
Cellulose - 
Mineral matter - 




3 3 
















The nutrient-ratio of these kernels is i : sH'y ^^^ nutrient- 
value is 143. 

The Olive (0/ea europaa) contains most of its oil outside the 
seed, in the green fleshy pericarp, which is sometimes eaten, the 
whole fruit being preserved in brine. 

The Hickory-Nut is chiefly produced by a North American 
tree {Carya alba), which belongs to the Juglandacece. It re- 
sembles a small walnut. Another species of the same genus, 
C, olivceformt's, yields a similar nut, the pecan or picary nut. 

The nut of the Cocos nucifera, commonly called cocoa-nut, but 
which we shall here term the coco-nut (to distinguish it from 
cacao), is a very characteristic fruit, rich in oil. 

Coco- Nut. 

French, Coco. German, Cocosftuss. Italian, Cocco, 

{Cocos nucifera.) 

The lofty and most useful tree which yields the coco-nut is a 
palm, now largely cultivated in many tropical islands, and on 
many tropical coasts. A single tree will bear from 80 to 100 
fruits. The favourite localities for the coco-palm are low-lying 
coast-lands in the West Indies, tropical Africa, India, the Malay 
Archipelago, the Straits Settlements, and the islands of the South 
Pacific. In Fiji large plantations have been made since 1875. 
The trees should be planted 25 to 30 feet apart quincuncially. 
The variety of nut chosen should have a due proportion of 
edible kernel to fibrous pericarp. For the first three years other 
plants may be raised beneath the coco-palms. The trees yield a 
fair crop in their tenth, eleventh, or twelfth year, the produce in- 
creasing up to the eighteenth year j heavy crops continue for 
fifty years. An acre in Fiji yields 4,200 nuts. 

The outer husk of the coco-nut affords a strong fibre called 
"coir," from which mats, brushes, and cordage are made. The 
shell of the nut is formed into bottles and drinking-cups, and 



leaves, when properly heated, a very valuable charcoal. The 
spirit called " arrack " is distilled from the fermented juice, or 
" toddy," of the flowering branch of the coco-nut palm, while the 
milk or liquid part of the kernel is, when fresh, a nourishing and 
pleasant beverage. 

The solid white kernel of the coco-nut is rich in oil, which is 
expressed and used for many purposes. The solid kernel weighs, 
when fresh, about i lb., and has the following composition : — 

In 100 parts. 

In I lb. 
oz. gr. 


- 46-6 

7 200 

Albuminoids, etc. . - - . 




• 3S'9 

5 325 

Sugar, etc. 


I 130 




Mineral matter 



The nutrient-ratio of this kernel is 1:16; the nutrient- value 
is 90. 

DiKA Bread. 
{Tningia Barkri.) 

The food known as dika bread is made from the fruit of a 
tree belonging to the Quassia Order. This tree grows in pro- 
fusion on the west coast of Africa, from Sierra l.eone to the 
Gaboon : although not related to the mango-tree of India it is 
often called the wild mango. 

The fruit from which dika bread is made is about the size of 
a swan's egg. It contains a large white almond-shaped kernel. 
The bruised kernels, warmed and pressed, form the so-called dika 
bread, which is largely consumed by the natives of the Gaboon, 
who use it, when scraped or grated, in stews. 

Diki bread contains three-fourths of its weight of a solid fat. 
Its taste is said to resemble that of a mixture of roasted cocoa 
and roasted flour. 



Dika bread contains — 

Water - 

Albuminoids, etc. 
Starch, etc. 
Fat - 

Cellulose - 
Mineral matter - 

In loo parts. 

• 9-5 

7 '2 



In X lb. 

oz. gr. 





The nutrient-ratio in dika bread is i : 18; but it must be 
remembered that 100 parts of this food contain heat-givers equal 
to i;5 parts of starch; the total nutrient-value stands at 184. 

The names of a few other nuts remarkable for their richness 
in oil are given below ; — 

Brazil-nuts, seeds of BerthoUetia excelsa, 

Sapucaia-nuts, seeds of Lecythis Zabucaijo^ and L, Ollaria. 

Double Coco-nuts, Loidicea seychellarum. 

Palm-nuts, Elais guineensis. 

Candle-nuts, seeds of Alturites triloba. 

Souan-nuts, Caryocar nuciferum. 


In the various parts of animals, and in the products of animal 
origin which are used as food for man, there are present many 
kinds of nutrients identical, or practically identical, with those 
found in vegetables. In both kingdoms albuminoids, oil or 
fat, and phosphates and potash salts abound. But, on the 
other hand, neither starch nor cellulose occurs in animal foods, 
while sugar is generally absent, or else exists in mere traces, 
with the solitary exception of milk. Yet there are some sub- 
stances which are distinctive of animal tissues, not occurring at 
all in plants. Such are the ossein of bones, the cartilagin of 
cartilages, and the similar nitrogenous compounds of connective 
tissue and skin. Add to these the haemoglobin of the blood, 
and some of the rarer and less thoroughly understood con- 
stituents of the brain and bile, and we have the chie. distinctive 
compounds of animal structures. It will be seen further on 
that animal foods are usually richer in nitrogenous matters and 
in fat than vegetable foods ; and also, that on the average, they 
contain a smaller percentage of water, when the comparison is 
made with materials in the fresh state. 

§ I. — Milk and Dairy Produce. 

As the natural food of the young of the mammalia, it is 
found that milk may be regarded as a model food. It furnishes 
all the nutrients required by the growing immature animal ; and 
it furnishes these nutrients in due proportion. 

Cows' milk is nearly opaque under ordinary conditions of 


light; it has a faint tinge of slrawyellow, which becomes more 
marked when the animal has abundance of green food. Milk 
has a soft, slightly sweet taste, it has also a faint animal odour 
when warm and fresh. When milk is allowed to stand some time 
the first change which occurs is the rising of the cream, owing to 
the lower specific gravity of the globules of milk-fat, which at first 
are scattered uniformly through the milk, which is, in fact, an 
emulsion. These minute globules — easily seen under the micro- 
scope — are the main cause of the white opacity of milk ; but there 
are also many still more minute globules of casein, the chief 
nitrogenous nutrient of milk. The amount of cream which rises 
depends upon many conditions. The first of these is the richness 
of the milk in milk-fat ; other conditions are : temperature — a 
low temperature being favourable to the separation of the cream 
— a considerable bulk of liquid, a wide vessel, and complete 
freedom from agitation, are also favourable conditions. The 
chief losses which milk suffers when skimmed are the removal 
of most of the fat, and about one-sixth of the casein. 

The next change which milk suffers on keeping is that of 

turning sour. This occurs specially in hot weather, and first 

affects milk which has not been kept in clean vessels and in pure 

air. The souring of milk, by the intervention of a minute 

organism, generally the Bacterium acidi-lactici^ is marked by the 

presence of an acid — lactic acid — which is formed from the peculiar 

sugar of milk known as lactose. It may be retarded by the 

addition of a little carbonate of soda, or of a small quantity of 

boracic acid. As Casein is separated from solutions by lactic 

acid, as well as by nearly all other acids, milk which has turned 

ceases to be of uniform appearance and opacity. Curds separate 

— these curds consisting of casein, but entangling also, as the 

substance becomes insoluble, much of the milk-fat and of the 

phosphates. This separation of curds is aided by heat. The 

liquor in which they float — the serum of milk, or whey — contains 

about one-fourth of the nitrogenous matter of the milk, all its 

sugar, and some of its mineral matter. 


Some instances have been noted in which a poisonous 
substance (a ptomaine known as tyrotoxicon) has been developed 
in sour milk. The same poison has been occasionally found in 
cream and in cheese. It produces nausea, vomiting, colic, and 
puiging. The conditions under which it is formed in sour milk 
appear to consist chiefly in the exclusion of air, and exposure to a 
rather high temperature — 75° to 80* Fah. — for some days or 
weeks, in the presence of the butyric ferment. It need scarcely 
be said that the development of tyrotoxicon cannot occur in a 
clean and properly managed dairy. 

The chief constituents of milk — whether cows' milk, human 
milk, goats' milk, asses' milk, or the secretion of other mammals 
— are casein and albumen, lactose or sugar of milk, milk-fat, and 
phosphates : a small quantity of citric acid, about 0*1 per cent., 
seems to be generally present in the form of a lime salt ; milk 
also contains a small quantity of dissolved carbonic acid gas. 
The nature and variations in composition of cows' milk are the 
most important part of the chemical study of this subject. Cows' 
milk, from a herd of healthy animals properly fed, presents a re- 
markable uniformity of composition. But the total amount of 
nutrients in it will vary within certain rather narrow limits with 
the following circumstances. Morning milk will often be poorer 
in total solids than evening milk ; much watery food, as brewers' 
grains, etc., will impoverish the milk ; a small daily supply of oil- 
cake may add nearly i per cent, to the total solids of milk ; milk 
from cows pastured upon poor and overstocked land will be poor 
in quality and reduced in quantity ; milk drawn last from the 
udder — the *' strippings " — will be richest, especially in cream, 
and consequently in milk-fat or butter. The following may be 
taken as the average composition of cows' milk : — 

Water •• - - . . 

Casein, albumen, and lacto-protein - 
Milk-fat -..--- 
Lactose, or milk-sugar - . • 
Mineral matter 

In 100 parts. 

3 '4 


In I 












Thus the total solids of milk amount to 13*0 per cent. ; the 
solids, other than fat, being 9-2 per cent. ; often 9-6. It is very 
rare to find genuine and healthy milk showing a percentage 
lower than 9 of solids not fat, but some instances have been re- 
corded where these constituents were found to be as low as 8^ per 
cent, j but in such cases the food of the cows must have been defi- 
cient in solid nutrients, or very watery. The ratio of albuminoids 
to carbohydrates reckoned as starch, in average cows' milk, is as 
I to 4. 

Cows' milk has the average specific gravity of 1032 ; one pint 
weighs rather more than i lb. 4)^ oz. : if one pound of milk 
be digested and oxidized in the body, it is capable of yielding a 
force equal to 390 tons raised i ft. high. The greatest amount 
of external work which it could enable a man to perform is 
78 tons raised i ft. high. One pound of milk can produce at 
the most nearly ^ oz. of the dry nitrogenous substance of muscle 
or flesh. 

So far cows' milk only has been considered. Now we may 
introduce the milk of other animals, comparing the composition 
of the most important kinds. 

Human Milk. — The milk of woman exhibits greater variations 
ill composition, and is less rich in casein, than cows' milk. The 
latter requires the addition to each pint of about 10 oz. of warm 
water, and i oz. of sugar (preferably milk-sugar), in order that it 
may approach human milk in composition. The following figures 
show the average composition of human milk ; — 

In 100 parts. 

Water 86-9 

Casein and other albuminoids - - • • - 1*8 
Milk-fat 4'0 

Lactose, or milk-sugar - - - - - - 7*0 

Mineral matter - - - - - - - 0*3 

The average specific gravity of human milk is 1031. The 
nutrient-ratio is as i to 9. 

CREAM. 149 

Asses' milk^ goat^ milk^ etc, — The average composition of 

the milk of several other animals is shown in the following 

table : — 

Constituents of Milk (in 100 parts). 






Water - • 




.. 81 -8 


Casein, etc. - 


1-9 . 

.. 4-8 . 

.. 6-4 

4 "3 

Milk-fat - . 








6-6 . 


... 5-0 


Mineral matter 


03 . 

.. o'S . 

.. 0-8 


In Sweden, Norway, and Denmark sheep's milk is used ; in 
Switzerland, much goats' milk ; in Tartary, mares' milk ; camels' 
milk amongst the Arabs, and reindeer's milk in Lapland. In 
many of these countries milk, from one source or another, forms 
a very important part of the food, not only of children, but of 
adults, and a much greater quantity is consumed than is the case 
with the labouring classes in the British Isles. There are many 
parts of the rural districts of England where milk is seldom seen, 
not being used generally even with tea. It is consumed more 
extensively in Ireland than in England, in proportion to the 

In Tartary, mares' milk is allowed to ferment, whereby alcohol 
and carbonic acid gas are formed from some of the sugar present ; 
the casein separates at the same time in curds. Such fermented 
milk is called koumiss^ and is found to be a wholesome and 
generally nutritious food. It is said to possess even some special 
value in consumption. A good imitation of it is prepared in 
London from sweetened cows' milk. 


The cream which rises from cows* milk when the liquid is 
cooled and at rest, is not constant in amount or composition. 
If water be added to milk, the cream rises more quickly, but 
is not increased in absolute amount. The cream usuallv measures 



12 per cent., or ranges within lo and 15 in average samples 
of milk — the milk being placed in tubes half-an-inch in diameter, 
where it remains twenty hours before the degrees occupied by the 
cream are read off. By means of mechanical separators, in which 
the milk is rotated at a great velocity, cream may be rapidly and 
nearly completely removed. Some notion of the average com- 
position of cream may be gathered from the following analysis, 
but the range of variation is great, the water alone varying 

between 28 and (iZ, 

Constituents of Cream, 

In 100 parts. 






Water - 
Casein • 
Milk-fat . 
Mineral matter 

Devonshire and Cornish cream contain about 60 per cent, of 

Skim Milk. 

When the cream which has risen on milk is removed, the 
liquid which remains is poorer in milk-fat and in total solids, but 
its percentage of milk-sugar is increased. It is a light and 
digestible food, but its nutrient-ratio is different from that of fresh 
milk, the albuminoids being in great excess. Its composition will 
vary much according to the extent to which the cream has risen 
and been removed. The following is an analysis of skim milk, 
which had been obtained by means of a centrifugal separator : 

Composition of Skim Milk. 

Water - - - 

Casein and albumen 
Milk-fat - 
Mineral matter 

In 100 parts. 




The nutrient-ratio 
nearly 9. 


here 1:1^; the nutrient-value is 



Preserved and Condensed Milk. 

Although there are several ways of treating milk so that it may 
be preserved sweet and wholesome for some time, or reproduced 
for use very easily and simply, yet there is but one preparation of 
this kind which is extensively used. This is called condensed 
milk ; but in reality the milk has not only been condensed by the 
removal of a large portion of its original water, but it has re- 
ceived a considerable addition of cane-sugar to preserve it Thus 
it happens that this condensed milk, or preserved milk, cannot take 
the place of milk as a model food, the large quantity of cane- 
sugar present being less appropriate for infants than the corre- 
sponding amount of milk-sugar. Preserved milk is generally 
prepared by evaporating milk in a vacuum pan, after the ad- 
dition of 12 lb. of cane-sugar to loo lb. of milk, till it acquires 
a thick consistence. The pale straw-coloured sirup is poured 
into tins, which are then closed from the air by soldering. During 
evaporation some of the fatty matter is dissipated along with the 
vapour of water. The milk presents these results on analysis ; — 

Composition of Preserved Milk. 

In zoo parts. 

In I Ibt 
oz. gr. 



4 105 

Albuminoids - 


I 213 

Milk-fat - 


I 305 


. 11-4 

I 360 



6 190 

Mineral matter • 



For I part of flesh-formers in this preserved milk there are 8 
parts of heat-givers, reckoned as starch. The nutrient-ratio in 
this condensed and sugared milk approaches 1:8; the nutrient- 
value is nearly 84. Some kinds of condensed milk contain no 
more than 25 per cent, of cane-sugar ; and there is one sort 
which has received no addition of sugar, but has been evaporated 
down to one-third its bulk in vacuo; it will not, however, remain 
sweet for long after having been exposed to the air. 


Adulteration of Milk. 

The removal of cream and the addition of water are the only 
ways in which milk is commonly impoverished. The removal of 
cream shows itself in the thinner and less opaque appearance of 
the milk ; the addition of water produces the same effect. As 
milk-fat, the chief part of cream, is lighter than water, its partial 
removal from the milk makes the specific gravity of the remaining 
milk greater: by the subsequent addition of water the specific 
gravity may be lowered down to that of the original milk. Thus 
it is clear that the specific gravity of milk, taken alone, is valueless 
as a test of its quality. The indications of the " gravity lactometer" 
should be combined with the use of a set of graduated tubes in 
which to ascertain the number of measures of cream which arise 
from I GO measures of milk in 24 hours. And it is also advisable 
to ascertain the opacity of the sample by means of the lactoscope. 
Chemical analysis, of course, affords a more complete proof of 
the sophistication of milk. The total solids, and also the solids 
not fat, should be ascertained. A hundred grains of milk should 
leave, when carefully dried up, from 12 to 14 grains of solid 
substance, including milk-fat, casein, milk-sugar, salts, etc. ; and 
the solids other than fat ought to amount to 9 or 9j^ grains. 
The specific gravity of cows' milk is 1032. 

It has been argued that the removal of cream from, and the 
addition of water to milk, are not adulterations injurious to health. 
As, however, these operations lower the feeding value of the 
milk considerably, and also seriously alter the nutrient-ratio of 
this model food, the above position cannot be maintained. It 
must also be borne in mind that there are many children whose 
daily allowance of milk, supposing it to be of good quality, barely 
suffices to sustain life : when this mil^ has been lowered by 
one-fourth or one-third of its original feeding value, it is not un- 
reasonable to regard this tampering with the natural product as 
" injurious to health," nor is it difficult to foretell the results. 

BUTTER. 153 

The statements that chalk, brains, gypsum, etc., are used to 
thicken milk are almost entirely devoid of foundation. 

Milk has sometimes been the means of spreading disease, 
either through its direct contamination with the specific poison 
of disease during the milking of the cows, or by means of the 
water used in rinsing the vessels employed, or in diluting the 
milk. The milk itself is sometimes unwholesome from the 
outset, owing to the unhealthy condition of the cow. 

French, Beurre. German, Butter. Italian, Burro, 

Although butter consists chiefly of milk-fat, yet it contains by 
no means inconsiderable quantities of the other constituents of 
milk. It may be obtained from cream most readily, but also by 
the direct churning of milk. Butter made from sweet cream has 
a more pleasant taste and keeps good longer than that made from 
sour cream : this difference is caused mainly by the presence of 
much casein or curd in the butter from sour cream. 

Much butter is now made in factories, in the United States of 
America, in Sweden, and elsewhere. By scrupulous attention to 
the purity and healthiness of the milk received, to the absolute 
cleanliness of the vessels used, and to the temperature and other 
conditions essential for a successful result, an excellent quality of 
butter is uniformly produced. The exact temperature, both in 
the rising of the cream and during the churning process, is 
always maintained ; ice and currents of warm water being used 
as required. The taint, or unpleasant and peculiar taste which 
so much butter possesses, can be avoided when all necessary 
precautions are taken to prevent the access of any kind of 
odorous vapours to the milk or cream. Nothing is so strongly 
absorptive of odours or volatile flavours as butter. It absorbs 
and retains the vapours from cheese, from meat, and especially 
from every kind of decaying vegetable or animal matter. If 
improper or strongly-flavoured food has been given to the cows, 

154 BUTTER. 

it is in the butter made from the milk that the taste of that food 
will be most clearly perceived. 

The best temperature for churning lies between 57* and 61" 
Fah. : 60" is a fair degree of heat. Sometimes cream is heated 
to a much higher temperature first — say 180* Fah. — and then 
cooled down to 60* Fah. before being churned. Butter thus 
made keeps well. It is generally considered that i lb. of butter 
can be made from 23 pints of milk. 

Butter always has some salt added to it : this salt must be 
quite pure. If it be not free from magnesium compounds, it will 
give a bitter taste to the butter. Even fresh butter has some salt 
in it — from ^ to 2 parts in the 100. Salt butter ought not to 
contain as much as 8 per cent., but more has been found in 
inferior samples. If butter is to be kept some time or exported, 
it receives, besides salt (2 to 5 per cent), a small addition of 
sugar — not, however, more than 8 oz. to the hundredweight. 

The purity and goodness of butter can be ascertained by 
means of the microscope, chemical analysis, and certain special 
tests of melting points and specific gravity. But these tests 
cannot be applied except by experienced analysts. Still it is easy 
to learn a good deal about some of the adulterations practised on 
butter, by simply melting a portion of it in a thin glass tube plunged 
in hot water. After a time the water, the curd or casein, and the 
true butter or milk-fat, separate i^to layers. The water remains 
lowest : on its surface, and mingled with a portion of the melted 
fat, lies the curd ; while the remainder of the fat constitutes a 
layer resembling oil, and remaining at the top. Now, as t^ere 
should not be more than 8 to 13 per cent, of water in good 
butter, the watery layer should not exceed in volume one-tenth to 
one-eighth of the whole butter. Nor should the casein, or curd, 
be very conspicuous. Water has, however, been found to the 
extent of 30 per cent, or more in some samples of butter, while 
salt often occurs also in great excess. Unfortunately, also, imita- 
tions of butter are now made on a large scale, and may be used to 



adulterate butter without being easily recognised. If they are 
sold under the name of " margarine," purchasers know that they 
are not buying butter, though they may be purchasing a whole- 
some and cheap substitute for it. But these purified fats are 
sometimes imported into England as Brittany or Normandy butter, 
and are also used for the fraudulent sophistication of genuine 
butter. The flavour of the true product is given to them by 
working them up with butter-milk, and it is difficult to recognise 
their origin except by chemical analysis. It may be mentioned 
that 56,490 tons of margarine were imported in the year 1901, 
chiefly from Holland and France. 

We cannot give an exact analysis of fresh butter which shall 
fully represent its components ; but we may take the following 
figures as showing the average proportions of its most important 
constituents when of good quality : — 

Milk-fat . 
Common salt - 

00 parts. 




10 '0 












The range of composition in a large number of genuine and 
well-made samples of butter recently analysed is here given : — 


100 parts. 


Water - 


• • m 


Casein - 


• •• 



. 817 

• • . 




• »« 


Common salt - 


• •• 


It is scarcely necessary to say that butter contains too small a 
quantity of albuminoid material for it to be reckoned in comparison 
with its high amount of carbonaceous nutrients. If we change the 
latter into the corresponding amount of starch, it will be found 
that I lb. of butter corresponds to 27,^ lb. of starch. 

156 CHEESE. 


French, Fromage. German, Kdse. Italian, Formaggto, 

The manufacture of cheese depends upon the peculiar property 
possessed by casein of being curdled by acids, and by certain 
unorganised ferments. On the addition of an acid to milk, the 
casein present, which constitutes three-fourths of the nitrogenous 
matter present, is separated from the liquid, which is straightway 
resolved into a mixture of irregular masses of separated casein, in 
which most of the globules of milk-fat are entangled, with a 
slightly cloudy liquid called wh^y, which holds the milk-sugar in 
solution, as well as some nitrogenous matter in the form of albu- 
men and lacto-protein. This separation of milk into curds and 
* whey is the first step in the preparation of cheese. It is usually 
made to occur, not through the use of an ordinary acid, but by 
means of rennet. Rennet is prepared from the fourth stomach of 
the calf, by first cleansing the stomach and the curd contained 
therein, and then leaving some brine in contact with its lining 
membrane for a few days. The saline liquid will thus acquire 
very active properties, so that a small quantity will curdle a large 
bulk of milk. Before adding the rennet, the milk is warmed to a 
temperature which varies according to the quality of cheese to 
be made. Generally, however, in cheese factories, where the 
regulations as to temperature are carefully carried out, the milk is 
heated to 84*^ Fah., then the rennet is added, and after the curd 
has been once cut, the heat is raised to 98° ; at this stage the 
complete souring of the mass takes place, the whole time occupied 
should not exceed one hour. The subsequent treatment of the 
curd, and the pressing, turning, and curing of the shaped cheeses, 
cannot be described here. In the cheese factories which are so 
numerous in the United States, and which have been established 
in England also, the whole process of cheese manufacture is 
carried out very quickly and uniformly. Some idea of the quantity 
of cheese necessary to supplement that which is made in this 

CHEESE, 157 

country may be gained from the fact, that during the year 1901 
not less than 129,342 tons were received from abroad. About 
two-thirds of this came from British possessions, the remainder 
chiefly from the United States and Holland. 

There are three chief kinds of cheese : — Whole-milk cheese, 
skim-milk cheese, cream cheese; but these pass by insensible grada- 
tions from one to the other. So-called whole-milk cheeses are 
often produced in dairies where some small quantity of butter is 
also made, and where some cream is abstracted from the milk. 
If evening milk be skimmed, and then mixed with the morning 
milk, hali-skim cheese will be the product. The skimming of 
milk, too, may be carried out so completely as to leave very little 
milk-fat for the cheese, or else it may be done so imperfectly as 
to affect very slightly the richness of the product. Cream cheese, 
also, is very variable in composition, according to the quantity of 
cream which is added to the milk used for its production. Neuf- 
chatel and some other soft kinds of cream cheese are very rich in 
milk-fat. Stilton cheese contains a smaller proportion of this 
constituent, but still is (or should be) richer than Cheddar cheese, 
which generally represents the average composition of a whole- 
milk cheese made from rich milk. Cheshire, and single and 
double Gloucester cheese show a slight reduction in the propor- 
tion of their milk-fat. American cheese is generally lower still in 
its proportion of this ingredient, while Dutch cheese is a good 
illustration of a true skim-milk cheese. It may be stated generally 
that cream cheese contains less water and casein and more fat 
than whole-milk or skim-milk cheese; that whole-milk cheeses 
are made up of about equal proportions of milk-fat, casein, and 
water ; and that skim-milk cheeses contain less fat but more 
water than either of the other sorts. But it must be recollected 
that these observations apply to those cheeses which are eaten in 
a ripened and hardened condition ; for in many newly-made 
cream cheeses the water may amount to Ys^hs or more of the 
whole weight of the cheese. 



The chief constituents of a fair sample of double Gloucester 
cheese are shown in the following analysis : — 

Water - . • . 

Casein - . . . 

Milk-fat • - 

Milk-sugar and lactic acid 


Common salt - • • 

In loo parts. 

' 34-3 

29 '2 

















The nutrient-ratio is here i : 2*4 ; the nutrient-value is 99. 

Cheese is naturally of a pale yellow or straw-colour. The 
darker yellow and orange hues which it often shows are due to 
the colouring matter known as Arnatto or Annatto. This dye 
is obtained from the pulp in which the seeds of Bixa Orellana^ 
a small South American tree, are embedded. Arnatto is too 
often adulterated, sometimes with injurious substances. It is 
introduced into the heated milk, before the addition of rennet, 
in making cheese. Butter also is often coloured by it ; and it 
has been found in milk and cream. It is to be regretted that 
popular prejudice still demands a high colour in cheese, as the 
entire abandonment of the use of annatto is very desirable ; its 
employment introduces impurities into the cheese, and does not 
improve the flavour in any way. 

The digestibility of cheese varies with its texture, its age, and 
its composition. Generally speaking, it cannot be said to be 
easily attacked by the gastric and intestinal secretions. But a 
moist, crumbly cheese, fairly rich in fat, is more rapidly and 
completely digested than the drier and more nitrogenous skim- 
milk kinds. By various modes of preparation, such as grating 
and admixture with starchy matters, cheese may be made more 
useful and available for food. It should be eaten along with 
bread, rice, macaroni, or other kinds of food rich in heat-giving 
nutrients, in which cheese is deficient. It requires some time 
before persons unaccustomed to eat cheese as a substantive article 

EGGS. 159 

of the daily diet can derive full advantage from its nutritive pro- 
perties. The presence of much bone-forming material in cheese 
is worthy of remark. 

Some kinds of cheese, especially those which contain much 
milk-fat, and are not of a very close texture, acquire a strong 
odour and flavour by keeping. Both the casein and the milk-fat 
are then partly decomposed, the former yielding ammonia and 
ammonium sulphide, and the latter giving rise to butyric, caproic, 
and other acids. The blue mould, or mildew, which makes its 
appearance in old and very ripe cheeses, such as Stilton, is a 
funguS; called Aspergillus glaucus ; the red mould is Sporendonema 
casei. Cheeses are also liable to the attacks of minute animals. 
The common cheese-mite is Tyroglyphus Siro ; the cheese-fly, 
Piophilus casei^ deposits its eggs in the cheese, where they reach the 
larval stage, becoming the cheese-maggots known as "jumpers." 
It is scarcely necessary to state that all these forms of animal 
and vegetable existence cause a considerable consumption of 
the food-substance of the cheese on which they live, lowering 
its nutritive value. Usually, however, the decayed cheeses to 
which these remarks apply are consumed in small quantities as 
food-adjuncts merely, on account of their rich flavour, or supposed 
power of aiding in the digestion of other articles of food. Lard 
and margarine are sometimes introduced in the manufacture of 
skimmed-milk cheese, in order to replace the milk-fat which has 
been abstracted. 

§ 2. — Eggs. 
French, CEufs. German, Eier. Italian, Uova, 

Eggs of course contain all the necessary constituents of food. 
Those of different kinds of birds, especially of the common hen, 
are largely consumed by man. 

A bird's egg consists of several parts, which may be briefly 
comprised under the three terms of shell, white, and yolk. The 
shell consists mainly of earthy or mineral matter ; when free from 


i6o EGGS. 

moisture it contains in loo parts about 91 parts of carbonate of 
lime, 6 of phosphate of lime, and 3 of nitrogenous organic matter. 
Inside the shell there is a delicate membrane, which forms a kind 
of sac for the white of the egg. This part consists of a thick, 
ropy liquid, nearly transparent, and of a very pale straw tint, or 
almost colourless, when fresh, but becoming quite white, opaque, 
and nearly solid when sufficiently heated. These changes are 
due to the coagulation of the substance called albumen, which is 
contained in a soluble state in the unchanged white of the tgg^ 
but becomes insoluble on being boiled. The dissolved albumen 
occurs in large, thin, membranous cells in the white. Within the 
white lies the yolk, enclosed in a thin membrane, and tethered by 
two cords {chalazce) to the membranes of the white. The yolk is 
yellow, and nearly opaque. 

In a very large hen's egg, weighing 1,000 grains (rather over 
2% oz.), the shell and membranes will weigh about ico gr., the 
white about 6 to gr., and the yolk about 290 gr. The average 
weight of a hen's egg, shell and contents, is about i^ oz. It 
becomes rather lighter by being boiled, losing a little water. 
The white of a hen's egg has about the following composition : — 

In 100 parts. 
Water ••••--••- 84*8 

Albumen - - - I2'0 

Fat, sugar, extractives, and membranes • • - 2*0 
Mineral matter 1*2 

The yolk of a hen's egg shows a much greater degree of 
richness than the white. It contains — 

In 100 parts. 

Water 51*5 

Casein and albumen 15*0 

Oil, lecithin, etc 30*0 

Pigment, extractives, etc. ... - - 2*1 
Mineral matter -1*4 

The mineral matter of the contents of hens' eggs, though 
small in quantity, is rich in quality, consisting, as it does, mainly 
of phosphates of lime, potash, soda, magnesia, and iron. 

EGGS, 1 61 

The mixed whites and yoUis of hens* eggs (the shells being 
excluded) contain — 

Water . . - - 
Albumen and casein • 
Oil, lecithin, eic. 
Membranes and extractives 
Mineral matter - - - 

00 parts. 

lu I lb. 

oz. gr. 


II 207 


2 105 


I 332 





Eggs are very nutritious articles of food. They contain more 
albuminoids but rather less fat than an equal weight of butchers* 
meat. Their nutrient-ratio is 1:1-9; their nutrient-value 40. 
One pound of the mixed yolks and whites can produce rather 
more than 2 oz. of the dry nitrogenous substance of muscle or 

One pound of hard-boiled eggs, if completely oxidized, could 
set free a force equal to 1,415 tons raised i ft. high. The greatest 
amount of work outside the body which it could enable a man to 
perform is 283 tons raised i ft. high. The remainder of the 
stored-up force in this amount of food will be in part unexpended, 
but much of it will be used in keeping up the heat and internal 
activity of the body, and in the repair of its tissues. 

One pound of white of egg can set free force equal to no more 
than 357 tons raised i ft. high, and can enable a man to perform 
external work equal to only 7 1 tons raised i ft. high, whilst i lb. 
of yolk of egg can set free force equal to 2,051 tons raised 1 ft. 
high, and could enable a man to perform external work equal to 
the raising of 410 tons i ft. high. 

The number of eggs imported into Great Britain is enormous. 
During 1901 it was 17,071,767 of great hundreds. It has been 
calculated that 18 eggs would contain an amount of flesh- forming 
substance or nitrogenous nutrients sufficient for the various needs 
of life in an adult man for one day. It would be necessary, 
in order to provide the same amount of albumen from such a 
fruit as the pear to consume no less than 70 lb. It would be 
difficult to find a more striking illustration than this of the con- 


centrated character, so far as nitrogenous or flesh-forming sub- 
stance is concerned, of the egg. 

§ 3- — Butchers' Meat. 

The variations in composition between different joints from 
the same animal are considerable. Add to this the fact that 
there are numerous additional differences, due to peculiarities 
of individual animals, to race, to age, and to the modes and 
materials of feeding, and we shall find it easy to account for 
the great discrepancies between different analyses of the same 
kind of meat. The variations in the amount of fat are the 
most conspicuous, and influence, of course, the proportions of 
other meat-components greatly. A piece of meat may con- 
tain but 5 per cent, of fat, when it will be found to possess 
70 per cent., or perhaps 75 per cent, of water. But should 
50 per cent, of fat be present (a fat mutton or pork chop may 
contain more) then the water may not be higher than 38 — the 
rule being, the more fat the less water. If, then, nitrogenous or 
flesh-forming material be wanted, the leanest meat will furnish 
this, along with a considerably greater proportion of saline or 
mineral matter than is found in fat meat. Where heat-givers and 
force-producers are in special demand, as in cold countries, and 
during fairly hard work, then the fatter meats and bacon are at 
once more suitable and more economical. 

There are some signs by which the good quality of butchers* 
meat may be generally judged. Amongst these, in the case of 
mutton and beef, we may name a rich, bright, and uniform 
colour, and a firmness of texture, quite free from flabbiness, 
though moderately soft and elastic. Damp and clammy meat, 
with a tendency to exude moisture, is generally unwholesome. 
Very young meat, from animals forced to a large size in a very 
short time, is neither agreeable in taste, nor easily digested. 
The rapid rearing and fattening of animals, though profitable to 


the farmer, produces a poor and inferior quality of meat. The 
flesh, or true muscular fibre, is not properly developed, while the 
connective and other gelatinous tissues are present in super- 
abundant proportion. 

Meat is tender, if properly cooked, before the rigor mortis has 
set in, but it must be kept some days after that rigidity of the 
muscles has occurred if it be required to possess this valuable 
quality. Still, it is better for meat to be somewhat tough rather 
than unwholesome owing to the commencement of putrefaction, 
which so readily occurs in hot weather. 

A word should be said here concerning measly and braxy 
meat. The former condition, when well marked, is easily detected 
by the eye. It is caused by the presence of parasitic worms — 
species of Trichina and Cysticercus. It is believed that these 
animals, in part belonging to the tapeworms, are generally de- 
stroyed by the heat of boiling or roasting meat. Care should be 
taken to avoid imperfectly cooked pork, or ham, or sausages ; as 
well as any vegetables, as salad plants, which have not been 
thoroughly washed. Flesh-meat which is measly is also peculiarly 
liable to decomposition, and becomes objectionable on that score. 
The same may be said of braxy meat — the flesh of unhealthy or 
diseased animals which have been slaughtered in order to antici- 
pate their imminent death, and the consequent total loss of their 
flesh as human food. Moreover, braxy meat may contain the 
specific poisons of various diseases, as well as the medicinal 
agents administered to the sick animal. 

The various processes of cooking meat influence its com- 
position and digestibility differently. Roasting before an open 
fire is preferable to baking. If meat be boiled, it should be 
plunged in boiling water for a i^^^ minutes, and then such an 
amount of cold water added as will sufiice to lower the heat of 
the water to about 170° Fah., which temperature should not be 
much exceeded during the whole time of cooking. Meat loses 
considerably both in digestibility and flavour when twice cooked. 

M 2 



Salt meat is less nutritious and wholesome than fresh, except in 
the case of bacon and ham. The liquor in which mutton has 
been boiled contains valuable mineral and organic matters which 
ought not to be wasted. The liquor in which salted beef has 
been boiled is not available for food, except to a small extent, 
owing to the immense quantity of common salt which it contains. 
This salt in excess has an indirect injurious action on the human 
system, as explained on p. 124. The chemistry of those changes 
which occur during the processes of cooking cannot be dwelt upon 
here. But those changes are mainly the following: the removal of 
much water in the form of vapour and gravy, the latter containing 
the soluble organic and inorganic matters of the joint Much 
gelatin, too, is found in the grav)^, this substance being produced 
from those tissues of the meat which are not true muscular fibre, 
and which are rendered soluble by a moist heat. Much fat is 
melted out of the adipose tissue, and certain slightly carbonised 
matters, or dark -coloured substances, are formed out of the 
carbonaceous and nitrogenous constituents of the meat. To 
these dark-coloured materials, which are but little understood, 
the aroma, or flavour and odour, of a roasted joint are greatly 
due. They may be compared to the similar products found in 
the crust of bread, and in baked pastry and puddings. The 
general tendency of the process of roasting meat is to render it 
more palatable and more concentrated, but at the same time to 
reduce the proportion of fat. But cooking generally lessens the 
rate at which meat is digested ; this is evident from the figures in 
the following table of the 

Times of Digestion or 



Beef, raw 

- 2 

Mutton, roasted 

- 3i 

Beef, half-boiled - 

- 2.\ 

Veal, raw 

• 2i 

Beef, well-boiled 

- 2| to 3 

Pork, raw 

- 3 

Beef, half-roasted • 

. 2f to 3 

Pork, roasted - 

■ - 5i 

Beef, well-roasted 

- 3ito4 

Fowls, boiled 

- 4 

Mutton, raw - 

- 2 

Turkey, boiled 

. 2\ 

Mutton, boikd 

' • 3 

Venison, broiled - 

. . li 



We may add here that animal food is more digestible when 
cooked between 160* and 180° Fah. than at higher temperatures, 
and that the rate of its digestion is greatly increased by a fine 
state of division. 

We now come to the question of the composition of the 
different kinds of meat in general use as food. Our information 
on this subject being still imperfect, it will probably be best to 
give somewhat minute details about a single kind of butchers 
meat which we have submitted to special examination, and then 
to present a more general view of the composition of the other 
kinds of flesh-meat. 

A mutton-chop shall be the subject of our illustration. It 
contained, when quite fresh, a proportion of bone amounting to 
8 per cent. — perhaps a rather lower proportion than usual. 
When submitted to careful analysis, it gave the following results 
when the flesh and fat were taken together in the fresh state for 
analysis : — 

Id zoo parts. 
Water 44*1 

Albumen - 


Osseids - 

Fat - 

Organic extractives - 

Mineral matters 

Other substances 




















The bone of this mutton-chop was analysed, and gave the 
following results : — 


Ossein - - . 

Fat - 

Phosphate of lime - 

Carbonate of lime, etc. 

In TOO parts. 
















A recently-published analysis of a mutton-chop described as 
** lean " showed very different results to those we have given 

1 66 MUTTON. 

above. '*The more lean, the more water;" and consequently 
the number representing the percentage of water was 75*5 ; the 
fat was set down as 8*6 ; the albummoids as 10*5 ; the ossein- 
like substances as i'9 ; and the mineral matter as 3*5. 

To show the influence of cooking upon a mutton-chop, we 
may cite two analyses, in one of which (a) the gravy and dripping 
were carefully preserved and analysed with the lean cooked meat 
of the chop ; while in the other case {b) they were excluded : — 

In 100 parts. 
a b 

Water - 54-0 ... 51*6 

Nitrogenous matter - - - • - 27*6 ... 36*6 

Fat 15-4 ... 9*4 

Mineral matter - - - - - - 3*0 ... i*2 

Other substances — ... vz 

The useful lessons to be drawn from the above analyses will 
be best studied by a reference to the composition and pro- 
perties of the several nutrients, as described in the First Part of 
the present Handbook. It would require too much space to 
enlarge upon these matters here, yet a few words may be use- 
fully introduced on the meaning to be attached to three general 
terms which it will be requisite to use frequently in the analyses 
of meat which will be cited. These terms are "nitrogenous 
matter," " other nitrogen-compounds," and " extractives." Gene- 
rally, by the first expression, when it is followed by the second, 
albuminoids and osseids are meant. We know that the albu- 
minoids have a more' complex composition than the osseids, are 
of much higher value as nutrients, and have more numerous 
offices to fulfil than the osseids. But in numerous analyses of 
animal products they have not been separately estimated, and 
the determinations that have been made are open to doubt. 
For this reason the nutrient-ratios of animal foods have been 
omitted from our descriptions in most cases, as they cannot at 
present be given accurately. By the phrase ** other nitrogen- 
compounds," we imply substances containing nitrogen which 


cannot be ranked with the albuminoids or with the osseids, and 
which are of little or no nutrient-value. " Extractives " include 
organic substances soluble in water and not containing nitrogen ; 
as nutrients they possess, in general, a value inferior to that of 
starch ; they occur in small proportions only. Where, however, 
we use the two terms, "nitrogenous matter" and "extractives," in 
an analysis, not mentioning " other nitrogen-compounds," we 
include amongst the extractives all organic compounds, whether 
containing nitrogen or not, which can be extracted by water, and 
which are not comprised under albuminoids and osseids, and 
which are soluble either in cold water or in hot. 

Before giving some analyses of other kinds of meat, it would 
be well to remind our readers of what was said on p. 162 about 
the great variation in composition which different animals and 
parts of animals present. Thus, the following figures must not 
be looked upon as representing a series of standards. They have 
been drawn up from numerous analyses made in this country and 
abroad of the various kinds of meat, without bone : — 

Constituents in 100 parts of 


.. 70-8 
.. 19*0 
.. 9'o 

.. 1*2 

It must be understood that each of the fixed or solid con- 
stituents above named includes, under a single designation, several 
distinct compounds. For example, the ** nitrogenous matter" 
represents {a) true albuminoids, {b) osseids, and {c) soluble, 
crystalline basic bodies known as creatine, creatinine, and carnine. 
The three last-mentioned nitrogenous matters exist in small pro- 
portions only — they are concentrated in the gravy of cooked meat, 
and constitute a large part of extractum carnis. So the main bulk 
of the nitrogenous matter consists of albuminoids — true muscle- 
formers — and of osseids, substances which have been fully 







. 69-4 ... 

5S-0 ... 

61 -8 ., 

.. 71-1 

... 44"5 

Nitrogenous matter 

- 19-5 - 

16-5 ... 

l8-2 . 

.. 20-8 

... 126 

Fat, etc. - 

- 97 ... 

27-3 ... 

8-9 .. 

.. 6-9 

... 42-4 

Mineral matter • 

1*4 ... 

1-2 ... 

II .. 


... o'5 


described on page 45, and which, for the most part, give rise to 
gelatin and chondrin by long boiling with water. They exist in 
muscular flesh as membranes, tendons, and similar tissues. Their 
amount varies much in different meats, in different joints, and in 
different parts of the same joint. In the majority of analyses (of 
beef, mutton, veal, etc.) which have been made, they are not 
distinguished from the true albuminoids, though their nutrient- 
value being small, and their functions as food-material limited, 
their estimation is very important. In some instances they have 
been stated to amount to half the total nitrogenous matter. 

Again, under the heading " fat, etc.," are included traces of 
inosite or muscle-sugar, and of two or three other non-nilrogenous 
matters ; while the " mineral matter " comprises potash, soda, 
lime, phosphoric acid, sulphuric acid, chlorine, etc. To these 
observations we may add the general statement that the per- 
centages of fat and of water in any kind or sample of butchers' 
meat are very nearly in inverse ratio — the more fat the less water, 
and vice versd. 

According to Frankland, i lb. of the lean of beef, if digested 
and oxidized in the body, might produce an amount of force equal 
to 885 tons raised i ft. high. The greatest amount of external 
work which it could enable a man to perform is 1 7 7 tons raised 
I ft. high. 

The following further data relate to other meats, etc., as force- 
producers, the higher figures representing the total amount of 
force capable of being set free by the digestion and oxidation 
within the body of those animal foods, and the lower numbers 
representing the force available for external work — both in tons 
raised i ft. high, or ** foot-tons : '* — 

I lb. of beef fat - • ,- • - 5,626 ... 1,125 
I lb. of lean of veal ... - 726 ... 145 

I lb. of boiled ham - • • - 1,041 ... 208 

This seems the proper place to introduce a word or two con- 
cerning some of the internal parts of animals (or viscera) which 


are consumed as food. These often require careful cleansing 
and thorough cooking, and are more likely to be diseased than 
the muscular flesh. In most cases they are of very close texture, 
and they do not always contain the same kinds of nutritive 
nitrogenous matters as are present in ordinary meat. 

Calves' Liver contains the following proportions of its 
constituents : — 

In 100 parts. 

Wa'er T]'/^ 

Nitrogenous matter • • • • • -18 '5 

Fat, etc. • - 3*o 

Mineral matter - • I*i 

Here the ratio of flesh- formers to heat-givers reckoned as 
starch, is as i to 3-ioths — a proportion which shows the pro- 
priety of the use of fatty or starchy food with liver, as illustrated 
in the familiar dish of " liver and bacon." 

Tripe is the cleansed paunch or first portion of the ruminant 
stomach of the ox. The exact nutritive character of tripe is not 
known. It generally contains much fat. A sample as sold by 
the butcher, but freed from the lumps of fat present, showed the 
following composition : — 

In 100 parts. „^" ' ^^ 

* oz. gr. 

Water ........ 79-5 ... 12 216 

Nitrogenous matter 10 'o ... i 262 

Fat 10*0 .. I 262 

Mineral matter 0*5 ... o 35 

These numbers show a high percentage of water and a low 
percentage of mineral matter, due to the cleansing and boiling in 
water which tripe undergoes before it is sold. 

Sweetbread should be the thymus gland of the ox: the 
pancreas goes under the same name. Among other viscera or in- 
ternal organs of animals which are eaten are the heart and the 
kidneys. Both of these organs are of very dense and firm tex- 
ture, and cannot be regarded as of easy digestibility. They are 
highly nitrogenous articles of food, but the heart generally contains 
some fat. 


Reference has already been made to the composition of bone. 
Blood, especially pigs' blood, is sometimes used as food in the 
form of black-pudding. It requires a considerable admixture of 
starchy and oily matter to afford a complete nourishment : it 
contains about 78 per cent, of water, the remainder being chiefly 
nitrogenous matter with some mineral salts. 

Bullocks' tongues, horses' tongues, reindeer tongues, and 
sheep's tongues are commonly used as food, and are nutritious 
and digestible. Some of these kinds are dried and imported in 
that condition : these require long soaking in cold water before 
being cooked. 

The following brief list includes the scientific names of the 
chief mammals to which reference has been made in the present 
section : — 

Hare, Lepus europaus. 
Rabbit, L. cuniculus. 
Pig, Sus scrofa. 
Ox, Bos taiirus. 
Sheep, Ovis aries. 

Deer, Dama vulgaris. This, the fallow deer, was perhaps 
introduced by the Romans. 

§ 4. — Poultry and Game. 

One of the chief characteristics of the flesh of fowls, notably 
those which are wild, is the almost entire absence of fat. When 
much fat is present the flavour of the meat is often less delicate, 
and its digestibility, especially when roasted, decidedly difficult. 
It does not seem that game, even when " high," and therefore to 
some extent decomposed, is really unwholesome when properly 
cooked. A very large number of birds furnish food to man, in 
different quarters of the globe. The flesh of those birds which 
feed on grain or other vegetable products is less strongly flavoured 
than that of carnivorous birds. A mere list of names of the most 



important kinds of poultry and game would not be very useful, in 
the absence of details concerning their relative values as food, 
and the chemical composition of their flesh. But we give here an 
analysis of the flesh of the common fowl as representing one 
group of this kind of animal food : — 

In ICX3 parts. 
. . . . 778 

• 173 




Nitrogenous matter 


Fat - 

Mineral matter- 












The two analyses which follow represent the percentage 
composition of the flesh of the pigeon and the partridge : — 




• •• 





« « t 






• •« 


Water • 

Nitrogenous matter 
Extractives - 
Fat - - • 
Mineral matter 

Altogether about thirty different species of birds are commonly 
used for food in Great Britain, very large numbers of some of 
these kinds being imported from abroad. Amongst the birds not 
previously mentioned may be named wild ducks, plover, snipe, 
widgeon, pheasants, quail, grouse, woodcock, capercailzie, 
ptarmigan, and teal ; also, we regret to add, larks, 400,000 of 
which are said to be sold annually. 

The flesh of the hare approaches very nearly in texture and 
composition to that of the majority of game-birds, and yields, on 
analysis, numbers almost identical with those given above for the 
partridge. The flesh of the rabbit corresponds more nearly with 
that of the common fowl. Venison may be classed, from the 
chemical point of view, with the flesh of the pigeon, but it some- 
times contains much more fat. 

We may now introduce a strange example of the out-of-the-way 
products of animal origin which have been used as food for man. 


That the eggs of birds and the flesh of birds should be so used 
is familiar enough to us, but that their nests should be regarded 
as suitable for eating, and even as a great delicacy, is certainly 
somewhat surprising. Such, however, is the case ; and we may 
therefore here give a brief account of — 

Edible Birds' Nests. 

Edible birds' nests may certainly rank amongst the curiosities 
of food. They are considered great delicacies in China, where 
they form part of all ceremonious feasts, being dissolved in soups. 
They reach China from the Southern Archipelago, chiefly from 
Java, Borneo, Celebes, and the Sulu Islands. It has been esti- 
mated that no less than 8,400,000 of these nests are annually 
imported into Canton. The finest and whitest kind sells for as 
much as j[^<^ or JP^d the lb., but it requires about fifty nests to 
make up one pound. In reality these singular structures are 
rather the brackets upon which the birds afterwards build their 
nests than the nests themselves. The bird — a kind of swift 
know^n as the salangan {Collocalta esculenta) — builds both in 
marine and inland caverns, first forming, mainly with its saliva, a 
number of loops, which it subsequently works up into the shell- 
shaped support for its nest. The nest itself is made of grass, 
leaves, and seaweed, but the edible bracket or support consists 
almost exclusively of the salivary secretion of the bird. It is a 
mistake to suppose it to be made of seaweed, which the salangan 
neither eats as food nor uses in the building of these brackets, 
though the nests are often made of it. The salangan builds and 
breeds four times in the year. The brackets are removed three 
times, the best being obtained in July and August. 


In this country the reptiles used as food are few in number. 
Their flesh is regarded as a luxury ; it is, however, wholesome and 

FISH. 173 

di<^estible. The green turtle of the West Indies {Chelone viridis)^ 
and of some parts of the South American coast, is the best known 
and most highly appreciated of the reptiles used as food. They 
are imported alive into this country. Their flesh is the basis of 
tuitle-soup. Sun-dried turtle, cut into convenient pieces for 
culinary purposes, are now received in this country from the West 
Indies and other places. They are an excellent substitute for 
fresh turtle. The land-torioise (Tcstudo graeca\ which is common 
on the Mediterranean coasts, is eaten by the inhabitants of Italy 
and the Levant. A small fresh-water tortoise, the terrapen, is 
eaten in America, and is imported into this country. 

A large frog {Rana escuUnta) is eaten in many parts of Europe t 
it has been introduced into this country, and has thoroughly 
established itself in some parts of Norfolk. The hind-legs are 
selected as the best part to be consumed. Various other reptiles 
are eaten in different countries — the iguana in Guayaquil, the 
teguexin {Tupinambis teguexin and T, nigropunctaUis) in Brazil, 
the axolotl {Amblystoma tigriniiui) in Mexico, and the green lizard 
{Lacerta viridis) in Rome. 

§ 5.— Fish, etc. 

The kinds offish commonly available for food in England are 
numerous. The muscular flesh of the same fish differs in 
different parts of the animal and in different seasons of the year. 
Those fish which are least oily and fat are the most wholesome ; 
but their highly nitrogenous character demands the abundant use 
of starchy foods, in order that a due proportion of heat-givers may 
be consumed along with the flesh-formers they contain. A dr}-, 
woolly, or tough texture in the muscular fibre of fish is an indica- 
tion of indigestibility. Thorough cleansing and thorough cooking 
of fish is essential to its wholesomeness. Lemon juice is one of 
the best sauces that can be used with fish : some of the compound 
sauces in vogue are of very doubtful composition and purity. 

174 ^^SH, 

The least oily fish are whiting. They are the most easily digested, 
especially when boiled. Flounders, soles, plaice, and several 
other kinds, are nearly equally available for the invalid. Eels, 
salmon, herrings, and even mackerel, are far more oily and less 

The published chemical analyses of fish are very discordant 
This arises in great part from the condition of the fish varying 
at different times of the season. An analysis of a mackerel in 
good condition gave — 

In loo parts. 

Water 687 

Nitrogenous matter 135 

Oil or fat 12*5 

Organic matters, undetermined ... 2*0 

Common salt 0'2 

Phosphates, potash-salfs, and other mineral 

matter 3'I ... o 217 

In the nitrogenous matter named above is included a sub- 
stance known as creatine ; it abounds in skate and cod. 

It must also be noted that the true albuminoids have not 
been separately estimated apart from the osseids ; consequently 
the percentage of available nitrogenous nutrients present in 
mackerel is here somewhat exaggerated. The particular speci- 
men analysed was in a rather fat condition ; it was caught in the 
middle of May. An average degree of fatness is exemplified in 
another analysis included in the following table ; — 

^ Composition of Fish (Edible portion In 100 parts). 


I lb. 
















- 72-5 

... 640 

... 80-4 

• • • 

61 'O 

... So-o 

Nitrogenous mattei 

- '7'5 

... 22-0 

... 140 


... 10*9 

Fat • 

> 8-0 

... 12-2 


• •• 


... 71 

Mineral matter - 


... 1-8 

... 3*6 

■ • ■ 



Amongst the numerous kinds of dried fish which are occa- 
sionally imported into this country, the bummeloh fish of the 
Chinese Seas and Indian Ocean are known, oddly enough, by the 
flame of '' Bombay ducks'' in Bengal. They are of delicate 



flavour when fresh, but by drying and salting acquire a very 
strong smell and taste. 

The large amount of salt which is introduced in the salting 
of fish may be judged of from the following analysis of salted 
herrings : — 

In xoo parts. 


Nitrogenous matter 

Fat - 

Common salt - 
Other mineral matter 



















In the following list are included many of the best known and 
most important of the food-fishes. 

Black bass, Huro nigricans. 
Red mullet, Mullus barbaius. 
Common mackerel, Scomber 

Common cod, Gadus morrhua. 
Haddock, Gadus ceglefimis. 
Whiting, Gadus merlangus. 
Hake, Merluccius vulgaris. 
Ling, Afolva vulgaris. 
Holibut, Hippoglossus vulgaris. 
Turbot, Rhof7ibus maximus. 
Brill, Rhombus Icevis, 
Plaice, Pleuronectes platessa. 

Flounder, Pleurone.ies flesus. 
Sole, Solea^ sp. 
Tench, Tinea tima 
Trout, Salino fario. 
Herring, Clupea harcngus. 
Sprat, Clupea sprattus. 
Pilchard or sardine, C, pil- 

Eel, Anguilla vulgaris and lati- 

Sturgeon, Acipe/iser ruthcnus^ 

A. gueldenstcedtiiy and other 


According to Frankland's experiments, the following figures 
represent the force, expressed in foot-tons, which could be liberated 
by the digestion and oxidation in the body of i lb. of whiting 
and mackerel : — 


Total work. 

External work 


The effect of cooking fish is illustrated by an analysis of raw 
and boiled salmon, which we quote from Mr. Wynter Blyth — 

In loo parts. 
Uncooked. iJoilsd. 

Water 71-5 ... 65-3 

Albuminoids and osseWs • • • -187 ... 25*9 

Extractives • 3*0 ... 21 

Fat 6"2 ... 5*9 

Mineral matter ...... o*6 .. o"8 

Fish are preserved for subsequent use in several ways — by 
drying, by smoking, by salting, and by the use of oil. The removal 
of moisture or the exclusion of air is the chief condition of success. 
Most kinds of dried and salted fish are rendered more palatable 
and wholesome by being soaked for some hours in cold water. 
The fish which are most easily preserved are those of firm texture, 
or of moderate size, and particularly those which are naturally 
rich in oil or fat. Herrings, anchovies, pilchards or sardines, 
and salmon, are familiar examples. The dried bummeloh fish, 
known in India as "Bombay ducks," are highly esteemed. 
Caviare, the roe of several species of sturgeon, is generally con- 
sumed in a decomposed state, and then cannot be considered 
wholesome. Fresh caviare is a very different article, and does 
not demand an acquired taste for its appreciation. Salted caviare 
contains about 32 per cent, of nitrogenous matter, 14 of fat, and 
8 of salt. 

Oysters and other molluscs may be briefly noticed here. 
Oysters are more digestible when eaten raw, much of the nitro- 
genous matter they contain being rendered tough and insoluble 
by heating. Oysters are often improved in flavour and whole- 
someness by being kept for a day in a shallow dish with some 
weak brine, a little oatmeal being given to them. Oysters con- 
tain, when in average condition, about 6 per cent, of albuminoids, 
3 of nitrogen-free extractives, i of fat, 2 of mineral matter, and 88 
of water. Mussels are more frequently found in an unwholesome 
condition than oysters. 


On the continent of Europe there is one kind of snail which 
is often eaten as food, chiefly by the Latin races. It is common 
in some parts of southern France, and is also found rather abun- 
dantly in many of the southern parts of England. It is called the 
Roman or apple snail {Helix pomatid). When properly cleansed 
and properly cooked it is a nutritious article of food. In the 
neighbourhood of Dijon a small farmer has been known to clear 
;^3oo annually by the collection and sale of snails. From certain 
escargotieres near Ulm ten million snails are sent each year to be 
fattened in other snail-gardens for the use of the Austrian con- 
vents during Lent. Snails of the annual value of ;£^2o,ooo are 
sent from Troyes to the Paris markets. They are valued at 
4^. per hundred. This snail is found in large numbers in some 
districts in Gloucestershire, Kent, and Surrey. It occurs abun- 
dantly on the site of many Roman stations in England, and is 
believed to have been introduced by the Romans. 

Amongst the other Gastropod molluscs largely used for food, 
the following may be named : the whelk, Buccinum undatum ; the 
periwinkle, Littorina littorea ; the earshell, Halioiis tuberculata 
(this species is eaten in the Channel Islands and northern France ; 
other species are commonly used for food in New Zealand, China, 
Japan, West Africa, etc.) ; the limpet, Patella vulgata (eaten in 
some parts of Ireland). Amongst the Pelecypod molluscs or 
bivalves may be named : the cockle, Cardium edule ; the mussel. 
My tilts edulis (largely imported from the Dutch coast) ; the scallop ; 
and the oyster, Ostrcea edulis. With the exception of the last- 
named, the chemical composition of the flesh of molluscs remains 
almost undetermined. 

Lobsters and crabs are not very easy of digestion. The latter 
should be cleansed with the greatest care before being eaten. 
These Crustacea are very coarse feeders, and it is probably for this 
reason that they so frequently disagree even with healthy persons. 
Other Crustacea commonly eaten in Great Britain are the fresh- 
water cray-fish, the shrimp, and the prawn. 


173 BACON. 

§ 6. — Bacon and Preserved Meats. 

By salting, or by the exclusion of air, many animal products 
used as food may be preserved for a long time free from decom- 
position. It is not to be supposed that no changes in composition 
occur, but the decay to which meat of all kinds is so prone does 
not take place. In most cases the digestibility of the meat is not 
improved but rather diminished, at all events by salting, though 
this is probably not equally true of " tinning," and is not the case 
when the process of freezing is employed. We will first describe 
the salting process, as applied to pork, giving this instance as an 
illustrative example j afterwards we will notice other methods of 
preserving meat. 


French, Lard. German, Speck. Italian, Lardo. 

When cured^ or preserved by salting and drying, and generally 
by the process of smoking in addition, pork becomes bacon. 

The preparation of bacon is now carried on very extensively 
and systematically in factories specially constructed and fitted up 
for the purpose. The following sketch may give some notion of 
the plan commonly adopted : 

After having been kept without food for twenty-four hours, the 
pig is taken to the slaughter-house and killed. It is then hung up 
by the hind-legs, singed by means of gas, scraped, opened, cleansed 
by powerful jets of water, and dressed. When the carcass has 
become cool and firm, which is generally the case after about 
twelve hours, it is ready for boning or cutting up. This is done 
by placing the pig on a strong table and cutting off the head close 
to the ears. The fore-feet are then removed, and the hind-feet so 
as to leave, a shank to the ham. The carcass is then divided 
straight along the back and the shoulder blades taken out. The 
sides are now ready for salting. Each side is laid singly on the 
floor of a cool cellar, and dressed with a mixture of saltpetre 
(nitrate of potash) and salt, four ounces of saltpetre being used for 
each side, together with a quantity of salt corresponding to the 



size of the side. Brine is also forced into the flesh by means of a 
force-pump and jet. The next day the sides are piled one 
above the other, and remain so for four days, when they are 
turned over and sprinkled with more salt. Thus they remain 
for twelve days, when they are washed and dried. The next day 
they are taken to the "smoking house," where they hang for 
three days, being continuously smoked during that time with the 
fumes of burning oak sawdust ; thus they acquire the desired 
colour and flavour. The sides, when cold, are ready for market. 
Cured bacon sometimes become rancid or resty through exposure 
to air ; this may be avoided by keeping it in dry bran. Another 
injury to which bacon is subject arises from the attacks of a small 
fly, the larvae of which are known as jumpers. 

For domestic use pork may be cured as follows : — Stir some 
salt with hot water till no more of the substance is dissolved : this 
forms the brine or pickling liquor. Then mix, for a pig of mode- 
rate size, one pound of brown sugar and half-a-pound of nitre; 
rub this mixture well into the meat, which is then to be put into 
the pickle, remaining there two days. After this take it out and 
rub the pieces with salt alone. Return it to the pickle. It will 
be ready for use, after drying and smoking, in six or eight weeks. 
It is scarcely necessary to say that bacon varies greatly in compo- 
sition. It always contains less water and more mineral matter 
than the pork from which it has been prepared, while the fat in it 
is more digestible. Highly smoked and dried bacon sometimes 
retains but 12 or 14 per cent, of moisture; but a fair sample of 
streaky bacon, such as would be selected for the breakfast table, 
would be nearly represented, both as to moisture and its other 
chief constituents, by the following numbers : 


Nitrogenous matter 
Fat - 
Salt - 
Phosphates, etc. 

In 100 {>arts. 















N 2 


For one part of flesh-formers in the bacon examined there 
are i8j^ parts of heat-givers, reckoned as starch, the 65*2 per 
cent, of fat being equivalent to 150 parts of starch : it must, how- 
ever, be noted that the whole of the 8*i per cent, of nitrogenous 
matter shown in the analysis cannot be reckoned as true albumi- 
noids or flesh-forming nutrients, but, being in part related to 
gelatin, is of less value. On this account we must reckon the 
amount of dry muscular substance producible from i lb. of bacon 
as under i oz. 

The unsalted trimmings and offal of a bacon factory are 
utilised in the form of sausages, the minced materials being 
mixed with bread, fat, and condiments, and then preserved in the 
previously prepared small intestine of the pig. The surplus fat 
is melted, strained, and poured into cleaned pig-bladders; it is 
known as lard. 

Considerable quantities, both of bacon and of lard, are im- 
ported into this country from British colonies and from foreign 
countries. In 190 1 the imports of bacon, pork, and hams amounted 
to 433,578 tons, and the imports of lard to 98,312 tons. 

Preserved Meats. 

There are several plans of preserving meat and animal food 
products generally. Simple drying is one of the most effective 
of these, but the flavour and other qualities of the meat are not 
improved thereby in most instances; still this plan is available 
for some substances, and has long been in use. Drying in wood- 
smoke has the further advantage of preserving the substance, to 
some extent, from further change even should it become moist. 
This effect is due to the creasote or carbolic acid which is present 
in the smoke. It has even been found that a piece of fresh meat 
which has been dipped in a watery solution of carbolic acid will 
dry up without becoming offensive in odour or taste. 

Salt, sugar, and many substances of a saline nature may be 


used to preserve meat from decomposition. They act by reducing 
the proportion of water present, and by preventing the develop- 
ment of those lower forms of vegetable and animal life which 
accompany and aid, if they do not always originate, decay. But 
the most important methods of preserving animal products depend 
upon the exclusion of the air. This result may be achieved in 
several ways, which do not appear at first sight to have much in 
common. In all of them, however, the objects in view are the 
removal of the air originally present in the food, and the preven- 
tion of any subsequent entrance of air. To accomplish these 
ends numerous plans have been devised. For the air may be 
excluded or removed by a high temperature or by a low one, or 
by the introduction of a substance like oil or fat, which mechani- 
cally excludes the air. Of the latter method, sardines and 
pilchards preserved in oil, and then closed or hermetically sealed 
in tin cases, afford an illustration. Of the former method, the 
Australian meats are good examples. The meat, freed from 
bone, is placed in the tins, which are usually surrounded by a 
boiling solution of chloride of calcium, capable of being heated 
several degrees above the boiling point of water. The air in the 
meat is expelled by the heat, and finally by the rush of steam. 
When, by experience, this expulsion of air is judged to be com- 
plete, the tins are quickly soldered up and will then keep sound 
a great length of time. It should be stated that the tins often 
receive an addition of gravy, or, rather, of jelly, with a little salt, 
and occasionally some condiment or spice. Other processes for 
preserving meat have not proved equally available. Such pro- 
cesses are briefly noted here. The joints to be preserved have 
been coated with collodion, with solid paraffin, or with a mixture 
of gelatin and treacle, or gelatin and glycerin. Solutions of the 
sulphites and bisulphites of lime, magnesia, or soda, which absorb 
oxygen readily, have been employed. The sulphite of lime in 
powder, sometimes sold as a " meat preserver,'' has been success- 
fully used for preventing meat from becoming tainted in hot 


weather, and in removing any taint which may have been acquired. 
Powdered charcoal, if freshly burnt, has the same properties. 
But the previously described method of enclosing meat in sealed 
vessels — generally of tinned iron, but sometimes of glass — is un- 
doubtedly the most generally applicable of all meat-preserving 
processes. The same method is used, also, for the preservation 
of nearly every kind of moist vegetable and animal products used 
as food, but prone to decay under ordinary conditions. The 
tinned Australian meats are gradually becoming more appreciated 
in England. They are moderate in price, agreeable in flavour, 
and wholesome. Several improvements have been devised in the 
process of tinning meats, by which the considerable heat and 
length of time necessary to secure complete expulsion of the air, 
before the tins in which the meat is contained can be sealed up by 
soldering, have been reduced. It has been found that a little 
sulphite of soda enclosed in the tins may be used to absorb the 
last traces of oxygen — that constituent of the air which causes 
decay. And even gases, such as carbonic acid, carbonic oxide, 
and sulphurous acid have been introduced into the vessels con- 
taining preserved foods, for the same purpose. Then, too, 
methods of injecting antiseptic gases or solutions into the carcasses 
of animals used for food have been experimented with. Further 
progress will doubtless be made in these directions ; much has 
been accomplished by the application of cold to the preservation of 
carcasses of fresh meat during their transport from New Zealand, 
Australia, and Argentina to Europe, all deleterious changes being 
prevented. Imports of frozen meat are very large. We also 
regard the processes of drying and smoking as worthy of more 
extended use in connection with the preservation of butchers' 
meat. From Australia smoked and dried legs of mutton of 
excellent quality have been imported. 

The importation of various tinned meats has assumed very 
considerable proportions since its origination thirty- five years 
ago. During 1896 no less than 35,087 tons were imported. It 


may be well to state that the prejudice against these tinned 
meats has been partly of the usual unreasonable sort, which 
revolts against all novelties in food ; and has partly arisen 
from ignorance as to suitable modes of cooking these meats. 
They may be properly used in Irish stews, in soups, and in many 
other ways, provided they be duly flavoured with condiments and 
are not re-cooked further than is necessary to heat them where 
they are not preferred cold. An analysis (by the late Mr. 
Wigner) of tinned corned-beef gave in 100 parts : 64-1 water, 24*4 
nitrogenous matter, 67 fat, and 4*4 mineral matter. One caution 
about the tinned meats is necessary. Sometimes— though rarely 
— they have been found to contain a little lead, and even tin, in 
solution in the gravy ; sometimes a large number of small globules 
of soft solder, containing much lead, at the bottom of the can. 
This caution applies to all tinned provisions, vegetable as well as 
animal. They should be carefully examined for metallic globules, 
which may prove injurious if swallowed with these foods. 

Meat Extract and Fibre. 

When raw meat is thoroughly extracted with cold water, a 
liquid is obtained which contains creatine and a number of other 
crystallised nitrogenous matters, together with such mineral salts 
as the phosphate, sulphate, and chloride of potassium. So long 
as the extract remains at a low temperature, it will also retain in 
solution some at least of the soluble albumen of the meat. If the 
liquor be now boiled down, the albumen will curdle and separate, 
while the filtered liquor, if^further concentrated, will become a 
nearly solid brown niass, rich in the permanently-soluble con- 
stituents of muscular flesh. Such a preparation does not contain 
more than a very small proportion of the true nutrients of meat, 
but is little more than a food-adjunct. Thus it is, that Liebig's 
Extract of Meat cannot be regarded as a food, though its use as a 
flavourer, as a stimulant, and as a medicine is not unimportant; 


it also furnishes some of the minor food constituents. An extract 
of meat prepared with boiling water contains gelatin. Th-e fibre 
of the meat which has been used in the preparation of these 
extracts is valuable when dried and powdered, or made into 
" fibrin " biscuits, etc., as a rich muscle-forming nutritive material. 
It also contains all or most of the fat originally present in the 
meat employed — that is, when care is taken to prevent the loss of 
this constituent. 

The following percentages, derived from twenty-five analyses 
of different samples of meat-extract prepared according to Liebig's 
process, will furnish an idea of the chief characteristics of this 
product : — 

Water • • . .217 

Organic matter • • • - - - -58*0 
Mineral matter - - 20"? 

The organic matter, although 8 parts of nitrogen are present 

therein, contains traces only of albuminoids. In 100 parts of the 

above named mineral matter there are 42 parts of potash, 13 ol 

soda, and 28 of phosphoric acid. 


It is impossible to draw a sharp line of distinction between true 
nutrients and food-adjuncts. There is scarcely a single article of 
food which does not possess some constituents which give it 
flavour, perfume, or colour, but which yet cannot be considered 
as doing any actual work in the body. But these adjuncts, in 
the forms of flavouring and colouring matters, etc., make our 
food agreeable, stimulate a flagging appetite, aid indirectly in the 
digestion of the nutrients, and help to render palatable food 
which would otherwise be wasted. More than this : some of the 
food-adjuncts actually furnish — along with their characteristic 
flavouring, stimulating, or narcotic constituents — real nutrients. 
Cocoa and beer are examples in point. And it has been found 
that the active principles of certain food - adjuncts have some 
power of economising the true nutrients by arresting the rapid 
changes of tissue, etc., which go on in the body. In general 
terms we may affirm, that if injurious or even dangerous con- 
sequences may follow upon the excessive use of the true nutrients 
of the body, much more will this be the case with some, at 
least, of the food-adjuncts. 

The order in which we shall consider the several groups of 
food-adjuncts has been already indicated (p. lo). The first group 
contains alcohol as its most characteristic ingredient. 

§ I. — Beer, Wine, and Spirits. 

The food-adjunct which is present in all fermented liquors, 
and in the different kinds of distilled spirits prepared therefrom, 
is a liquid known as alcohol and as spirits of wine. This hquid 


burns readily when a flame is applied to it, but it is very doubtful 
whether it is ever completely burnt or oxidized in the human 
body. Contrary to the general impression, it now appears that 
alcohol in any form lowers the temperature of the body. To 
many constitutions it is decidedly injurious, even when consumed 
in very moderate quantities and in the weakest or most dilute 
liquors. Its^ use throughout the day is nearly always fraught 
with danger. It is probable that it is best taken, not as a 
stimulant before work, but as a restorative after work, and as 
an accompaniment to the substantial meal of the day. Much, 
too, depends upon the form in which the alcohol is taken. Light 
wines, perfectly natural and not fortified with spirit, and pure 
beer or ale, are probably the most desirable liquors for general 
use. The worst kinds are distilled spirits, not only because of 
their strength, but because of the absence of those other con- 
stituents which modify the effect of alcohol in other beverages. 
But there is another bad quality in most spirits — that is the pre- 
sence of a liquid called fusel oil. This liquid, which consists of 
several bodies belonging to the same series of chemical com- 
pounds as that which includes alcohol itself, is definitely and 
distinctly poisonous. We shall recur to this subject in the para- 
graph on distilled spirits. Here, however, a few further words 
about ordinary alcohol may not be out of place. The term 
"absolute alcohol" is used to designate pure spirits of wine 
wholly unmixed with water. It is chemically pure alcohol, the 
hydrate of ethyl, a liquid boiling at 173° Fah., and having the 
specific gravity 794 (water being 1000). Proof spirit is a mixture 
containing 49!^ per cent, of its weight of absolute alcohol; its 
specific gravity is 920. 


French, Biere. German, Bier. Italian, Birra. 

The most commonly used of all fermented liquors in England 
is beer, under which term we include ale and porter. These 


liquors are prepared from malted grain by simple fermentation, 
without concentration, dilution, or distillation of the fermented 

The three materials employed in the manufacture of beer are 
malt, hops, and water. 

The malt is made of sprouted or germinated grain, usually 
barley or rye. To prepare malt the grain is first placed in the 
" cistern," where it remains 50 hours, absorbing a large quantity 
of water and swelling considerably. It is then shifted into what 
is called the *' couch," where, according to common practice, it 
remains 20 hours, and where the chemical changes begin. After 
this it is removed to the " floors," where the process of growth 
soon makes itself evident by the appearance of the slender rootlet 
of the seed ; when it is six days old, the sprout, or acrospire^ as 
it is called, is much longer. Most maltsters and brewers dry the 
grain when it is from 10 to 12 days old, but occasionally 14 days 
elapse before the process of malting is considered sufficiently 
complete. These variations depend partly upon the quality of 
grain employed, partly upon the temperature during malting, and 
partly upon the special purpose for which the malt is intended. 
When the germinated grain is considered sufficiently grown, 
further sprouting is stopped by drying it in the malt-kiln. The 
heat used causes other changes, and is different according to 
the kind of beer for which the malt is to be used. Some idea 
of the temperatures may be gathered from this list : — pale 
malt, for the palest ales, at about 100" Fah. ; amber malt, for 
other ales, at about 120° Fah. ; brown malt, for porter, at about 
160° Fah.; black malt, for colouring, at 380° or 400° Fah. When 
malt has been finished by drying, it differs a good deal from 
the original unmalted grain. Instead of 15 per cent, of water, it 
contains only five ; but the chief change which it has undergone 
is the conversion of some of its starch into a kind of gum called 
dextrin, and into a species of sugar, known as maltose. It is found 
that screened malt contains, moreover, a substance capable of 

i88 * HOPS. 

changing both dextrin and soluble starch into sugar. We say 
"screened" malt because the malt after kiln-drying is always 
sifted, to remove the rootlets or acrospires, which, under the 
name of malt dust or malt coombs, form a very valuable food for 
cattle, containing, as they do, about one quarter their weight of 
flesh-formers. The substance in malted grain which has the power 
of changing starch into dextrin and sugar is sometimes spoken of 
as diastase or maltin — it is a nitrogenous substance belonging to 
the albuminoid group. When malt is used for brewing it is first 
crushed and then infused in water, by which its soluble con- 
stituents are dissolved out, " wort " being produced, and brewers* 
grains left. The wort is usually fermented at temperatures ranging 
between 60" and 90° Fah. During the fermentation sugar changes 
into alcohol, which remains in the liquor, and carbonic acid gas, 
which partly remains, giving briskness and frothiness to the beer, 
and partly escapes. 

Hops are added to the wort to give an agreeable bitter taste 
and keeping quality to the beer. Hops are the cones or strobiles 
of the hop {Humulus Lupulus)^ called houblon by the French, and 
Hopfen in German. They were condemned in Henry VI.'s reign 
as an "unwholesome and wicked weed." In mediaeval times 
other plants were used for the same purpose, as ground ivy 
{Nepeta Glechoma\ sweet gale {Myrica Gale)^ and sage {Salvia 
officinalis). Hops contain about 4 per cent, of the astringent 
substance tannin, i}^ per cent, of a fragrant essential oil, and 
much resin. These substances are chiefly found in the yellow 
glandular secretion of the hop cones, called lupulin. Over 
51,000 acres are devoted to the culture of this plant in England, 
chiefly in Kent, Sussex, and Herefordshire, while large quantities 
(116,042 cwts. in 1 901) are yearly imported from Bavaria, Wur- 
temberg, and Belgium. The exhausted or spent hops are useful 
as manure. 

Of the water used in brewing beer little need be said. It 


BREWING. S^^^^lf^^'^^) 189 

should of course be free from all injurious impurities, and espe- 
cially from any organic matters undergoing change. But it must 
be noted that there is one mineral substance which exercises a 
decidedly beneficial effect upon beer, both during the progress of 
the brewing and on the finished product — this is sulphate of lime 
or gypsum. When the water available for brewing is deficient in 
this compound, it is introduced by allowing the water to pass 
over or through blocks of this mineral, or by stirring in the 
sulphate of lime in fine powder or crystals. 

To make three barrels of ale (108 gallons), the quantities of 
the several materials required will be somewhat as follows ; — 

I quarter of Malt; 

8 pounds of Hops ; and 

5 barrels of Water — the barrel being 36 gallons. 

In brewing, one barrel of water — that is, 36 gallons — is lost 
by evaporation, and 14 gallons in the fermentation and racking ; 
18 gallons are absorbed by the grains, and 4 gallons by the hops. 

The process of brewing is begun by crushing the malt, and 
then pouring hot water (180" Fah.) upon it, with constant stir- 
ring. This mashing yields the liquor called sweet wort^ which is 
then boiled with the hops, and afterwards rapidly cooled. The 
liquor is now fermented by the aid of yeast from a previous 
brewing. The fermentation is stopped before it is complete by 
separating the yeast and drawing the beer off into casks. The fining 
of beer may take place naturally, or it may be effected by means of 
isinglass dissolved in a solution of tartaric acid, in sour beer, or in 
weak sulphuric acid. There are many other fining materials 
which may be used. 

The finished beer, which has a specific gravity between i'oi4 
and 1*024, holds in solution a large number of substances, but 
the quantities of these substances present are not large — this 
fermented liquor always containing between 85 and 90 per cent 



of water. The following is the list of the chief compounds known 
to occur in beer : — 

1. Alcohol, or spirits of wine, from 8 to 3 per cent. 

2. Dextrin, about 4*5 per cent. 

3. Albuminoids, about 0*5 per cent. 

4. Sugar, about 0*5 per cent. 

5. Acetic, Lactic, and Succinic Acids, about 0*3 per cent. 
6 Glycerin, about 0*22 per cent. 

7. Carbonic Acid Gas, about 0*22 per cent. 

8. Mineral Matter, about 0*3 per cent. 

In the following analyses only some of the above constituents 
are separately entered, the items 2, 3, 4, and 6 above being, for 
instance, set down as *' extractive matter," a term which includes 
also several substances not named above (caramel, hop-extract, 

An imperial pint of the beers named contains — 







London Stout 
London Porter 
Pale Ale - 
Strong Ale - 

oz. gr. 
18 342 
18 412 
18 409 

17 399 

oz. gr. 

I 74 
I 10 

1 12 

2 18 




oz. gr. 
I 25 

1 3 

2 42 





A few words may not be out of place here as to the introduc- 
tion of other materials (besides those already named) into beer. 

But it should be at once stated that several of the substances 
supposed to be used for the purpose of adulterating beer and 
malt liquors are rarely so employed, and that some of these 
substances have never been so used. Thus, the rumour that 
strychnine (from the seeds of Strychnos nux-vomicd) had been 
extensively used to give bitterness to beer was entirely devoid of 
foundation. There is also reason to think that the employment 
of " Cocculus Indicus " — the fruits of Anamirta Cocculus — in 
brewing has been very hmited and exceptional : other bitter 

WINE. 191 

vegetable products have however been and are employed as 
partial substitutes for hops. Amongst these may be named 
quassia wood, chamomile flowers, and Colombo root. Caramel, 
or burnt sugar, liquorice, and salts of iron have been found 
in porter. A very common adulteration is salt — the object 
of this addition being not so much to develop the flavour and 
preserve the liquor as to produce a craving for more drink in the 
frequenters of the beer-shop. Much artificial sugar (glucose) is 
also used in brewing, for the purpose of strengthening the wort. 
The use of gypsum, of which we have before spoken, cannot be 
regarded as an adulteration. 

Beer which is sour or hard, or that which is thick and muddy, 
is not wholesome. The decided sourness of some beers is due 
to the alteration of a good deal of the spirit, which by exposure 
to air in the presence of the acetic ferment, Bacterium acetiy at a 
temperature of 77° to 86' Fah., loses hydrogen and gains oxygen, 
being changed into vinegar or acetic acid. The cloudiness of 
beer is often due to a second fermentation. 

French, Vin. German, V/ein. Italian, Vino. 

When the sugary juice of any fruit is left to itself for a time, 
at a moderately warm temperature, the change known as fermen- 
tation occurs. This fermentation is brought about by the growth 
of a low form of vegetable life, an organised ferment. It consists 
of a splitting up of the sugar present in the liquid (or at least of 
a large part of it) into alcohol, which remains in the liquid, and 
carbonic acid gas, which escapes more or less completely. 

Although the fermented juice of all fruits may be regarded as 
wine, yet the term is generally limited to the alcohohc liquor 
prepared from the grape. But we have in England at least two 
familiar native wines — perry, or pear wine, and cider, or apple 
wine. Other so-called British wines are usually made-up or 


compound liquors, into which a large quantity of cane or beet 
sugar has been introduced. They cannot be regarded as true 
wines, nor are they generally wholesome. 

By a reference to the analysis of grapes (p. 129) it will be 
seen that the chief ingredient in their juice is glucose, a kind of 
sugar. There is also some albuminoid matter, and a little tartaric 
acid chiefly in combination with potash ; other minor ingredients 
also exist in grape juice. The seeds of the grape contain the 
astringent substance, tannin, with some bitter principles, while in 
the skins not only does colouring matter exist, but also some 
flavouring matters and tannin. From these facts it will be clearly 
seen that very different qualities of wine may be made from the 
same quality of grape, according to the method of operating upon 
the fruit. The colour, the bouquet or volatile flavour, the 
astringency, etc., of a wine may thus be varied according to the 
admission or exclusion of the characteristic ingredients of the 
skins and stones of the grapes. 

The main diff"erence between grape juice and grape wine is 
the substitution of the sugar in the former by the alcohol which is 
characteristic of the latter. But other changes occur in the 
fermentation and ripening of wines. Much of the acid tartrate of 
potash is deposited from the liquid on being kept, this deposit 
being called argol. Argol consists chiefly of the above-named 
tartrate, but with it a little colouring matter and some tartrate of 
lime are always found. In the stronger but natural white wines 
small floating crystals of cream of tartar often occur; they are nearly 
pure acid tartrate of potash. A small quantity of free acetic acid 
is found in wines. When they become sour it is this acid to 
which the sourness is due ; it is formed by the oxidation of some 
of the alcohol present, a change which occurs more readily in 
weak natural wines than in those which contain much alcohol. 
Another important characteristic of wines is the presence, in small 
quantity, of certain compounds called ethers. They are usually 
fragrant oily liquids, of which traces are present in all wines. 


These ethers are compounds formed by the union of the ordinary 
alcohol or spirit of wine with some of the acids which are con- 
tained in the fermented liquor — at least this is usually the case. 
Much, then, of the flavour and perfume of a wine is due to these 
ethers, some of which existed, ready-formed, in the grape itself, 
while others were slowly formed on keeping the fermented Hquor. 
Different varieties of grape yield differently-flavoured wines, but 
the alcoholic strength of a wine, depends mainly upon the pro- 
portion of sugar in the grapes and in the degree of completion to 
which the process of fermentation is carried. The same kind of 
grape gives a very different wine as to flavour and alcoholic 
strength in accordance with the climate in which it is grown, the 
season, and the soil. 

The quantity of true or absolute alcohol in natural wines 
varies from 7 per cent, in some hocks, clarets, and other light 
wines, to 13 per cent, in many Greek, Hungarian, and Australian 
vintages. When the quantity of absolute alcohol exceeds 14 or 
14^ per cent, it may usually be considered that the wine has 
received an addition of distilled spirit, or has been fortified. Wines 
of delicate flavour will not bear fortifying, the alcohol added being 
usually derived from the fermentation of artificially-prepared grape 
sugar, and containing the coarsely-flavoured alcohols known as 
fusel oil. A fortified wine may contain a good deal of sugar, for 
the addition of spirit to a fermenting liquid checks, more or less 
completely, the further change of the sugar. 

Wines under 30"" of proof spirit pay on import (in casks) a 
duty of i^. id, a gallon; those over 30° and under 42° pay y. 
Large and increasing quantities of natural wines now come into 
this country. Even of Spanish wines so imported about half 
are of natural strength, while the average of all Spanish wines 
does not show much over 28 per cent, of proof spirit — rather less 
than 14 per cent, of absolute alcohol. In 1901 there were im- 
ported, for home consumption, 15,202,569 gallons of wines 
chiefly from France, Spain, and Portugal. 



The following table shows the quantities of alcohol, of fixed 
acids — calculated as tartaric acid — of acetic acid, of sugar, -of 
ethers, and of mineral matter or ash, contained in fair average 
samples of eight different kinds of wines commonly consumed 
in Europe. One imperial pint of each of the following wines 
contains about — 

Name of Wine. 



and other 

fixed i'cids. 






i.z. gr. 



oz. gr. 




I 219 







I 306 







I 343 



I 120 



Burgundy - 

2 18 






Carlowitz - 

2 35 






, Sherry 

3 147 







3 218 






Port - 

3 218 






The different wines made in this country from rhubarb stalks, 
gooseberries, currants, cowslips, elderberries, oranges, etc., con- 
tain oxalic, malic, and other acids, besides the tartaric acid which 
is the chief acid of the grape. Now these acids are not thrown 
out of the liquor after fermentation, as is the case to a great 
extent with the wine from grapes. Thus sugar has to be added 
to mask the acidity of these liquors, and in consequence they 
are not so wholesome as the natural imported wines. But it 
must not be supposed that grapes are entirely free from all acids 
save tartaric, or that the analyses above given represent every 
constituent of the wines we have included in the table. Glycerin, 
for instance, has not been yet mentioned, still it may amount to 
no inconsiderable proportion of the fixed organic matter of the 
wine. It is present, as we have seen, in beer also. 

The ethers of wine previously alluded to include a number 
of compounds not yet completely analysed or understood. Some 
of them, however, have been examined pretty fully, and even 


exactly imitated by chemical means. Oilnanthate, butyrate, and 
acetate of ethyl are the names given to some of the best known 
of these ethers. These ethers enter into the composition of the 
artificial " oil of cognac " and various flavouring essences. 

Cider, the fermented juice of apples, contains from 2^ to 4^ 
per cent, of absolute alcohol, together with some malic acid, gum, 
mineral matter,, etc. The quantity of sugar present varies with 
the less or more complete fermentation of the apple juice. 

Perry, made from pears, closely resembles cider in flavour 
and composition. 

Sake or Seishti is the favourite alcoholic beverage of the 
Japanese. It is prepared from rice, which has been made to 
ferment by means of a peculiar fungus, grown for the purpose, 
and known to botanists as Eurotiutn oryza. Sak6, which is 
usually consumed hot, has about the following composition : — 

In icx> parts. 

Water 85-0 

Alcohol I2"5 

Sugar O'S 

Dextrin o*2 

Glycerin I'l 

Free acids - - 0*2 

Other substances 0*5 

The total annual consumption of alcoholic liquors, of native 
production, in Japan, amounts to 6^ gallons per head of the 

Distilled Spirits. 

When any kind of fermented liquor is warmed, the vapour 
which first comes off contains much of the spirit or alcohol 
present. If the vapour be collected and cooled it assumes the 
form of a liquid, which originally received the name of spirits of 
wine. The operation is known as distillation, and the product 
is called distilled spirits. As the heat is continued the distilled 
liquid becomes weaker and weaker, containing more water and 

o 2 

196 GIN, 

less alcohol. The cause of the differences in flavour between 
distilled spirits from different sources lies not in the alcohol, but 
in the traces of ethers or essential oils which accompany this 
alcohol — which are volatile, like alcohol, and which are easily 
dissolved by it. The flavours of distilled spirits originate in the 
substances which by their fermentation have given rise to the 
alcoholic liquors which have been distilled. But it is usual, in 
many cases, to add flavouring matters of many kinds to distilled 
spirits. Indeed, from the same batch of spirits obtained by the 
distillation of a fermented solution of grape sugar or malt sugar, 
either gin, or whisky, or brandy may be prepared. The spirit 
used must be pure — at least it must have no very pronounced 
flavour of its own — if it has to be used as the basis of several 
distinct kinds of ardent spirits. It must tell no tales of its origin 
— of the starch, old rags, paper, or woody fibre, from which, by 
the action of sulphuric acid, it has been derived. It must in fact 
deserve the name often given to it of silent spirit 

The following are the chief varieties of distilled spirits in 
common use : — 

^ Giiif which is obtained, or should be obtained, from the dis- 
tillation of fermented grain, is flavoured with the essential oil of 
juniper berries, and other aromatic substances. Many recipes for 
the preparation of this Uquor are in use by the distillers, but the 
general plan is to introduce into the still the essential oil (which 
is often turpentine), the aromatic seeds and fruits, the creasote, 
and other materials of strong taste which are in vogue, and to 
distil the spirit once or more from this complex mixture. The 
less residue there is left when a pint of gin is boiled down till 
nothing more can be driven off at the heat of boiling water, the 
more likely it is to be wholesome. Another test for the quality 
of this and all other distilled spirits is the following: Get a 
straight glass tube, about three feet long, about half an inch 
wide, open at both ends, and perfectly clean and dry. Hold 
it~ upright, and pour the spirit to be tested down it, so that the 

BRANDY, 197 

inner surface of the tube is thoroughly wetted. Then move the 
tube to and fro' till the ordinary alcohol has become vaporised. 
There will remain behind most of the odorous substances present 
in the original spirit. Thus the fusel oil, so abundant in the 
spirit distilled from fermented beet-root sugar or potato-starch 
sugar, will remain in the tube, and may be detected by its powerful 
and choking smell. This fusel oil contains what are called the 
higher alcohols of the same series as that to which ordinary 
alcohol belongs. Amongst these we may name butyl, propyl, and 
amyl alcohol. On keeping a spirit which contains these alcohols 
they will often be found to diminish in quantity, giving rise to 
compound ethers like acetate of butyl and amyl. These ethers 
are more agreeable in taste and smell, and probably less ob- 
jectionable, from a physiological point of view, than the fusel oil 
from which they originate. 

Gin is sold at very varying strengths, so far as alcohol is con- 
cerned — a common strength being 17 under proof. It is often 
lowered still further by the addition of water. The water used 
is too often itself unwholesome and charged with impurities. 
Nothing but carefully prepared and filtered distilled water should 
be used — this is the case in the best distilleries. But the dis- 
tillers are not to blame in most cases for the bad quality of the 
gin sold in pubhc-houses. The retailers, not infrequently, having 
lowered the alcoholic strength of the liquor by means of water, 
restore the fiery character of the spirit by means of natural and 
artificial preparations of a heating character. 

A sample of London gin was found to be 22 under proof, and 
contained 1 1 J^ gr. of solid matter per pint. 

Cordial gin is flavoured with additional spices and essential 
oils, as cinnamon, cloves, etc Gin containing sugar is sold as 
sweetened gin. 

The words " gin '* and " geneva " are believed to be derived 
from the French word genievre^ juniper. 

Brandy, when genuine, is the spirit distilled from wine. 

198 WHISKY, 

Imitations are sold under the name of British brandy. Cognac 
and other genuine French brandies are flavoured with prunes or 
dried plums, and always contain some sugar. Caramel, or burnt 
sugar, and many other substances are used to colour and flavour 
the spirit from potatoes, etc., which receives the name of brandy 
in England. True brandy contains some oenanthic and acetic 
ether from the wine ; the imitation brandy is flavoured with the 
so-called essence of cognac, an artificial mixture of certain 
chemically-prepared ethers. 

A good sample of true cognac, of pale colour, was found to 
contain 136 gr. of solid dissolved substances per imperial pint, 
74 gr. being sugar. It was of proof strength, but is usually sold 
at 15 under proof. A fair sample of dark brown "British brandy" 
was found to contain 6iJ^ gr. of solid fixed matter per pint, 
18^ gr. being sugar. Its strength was 17 under proof. 

True brandy improves in flavour by being kept. 

Whisky, when genuine, is distilled from fermented grain. It 
has a smoky taste, owing to the presence of traces of creasote, 
etc., from wood or peat smoke. By the addition of artificial 
fiavourers, any distilled or silent spirit may be made into whisky. 
A good sample of Scotch whisky, two years old, was 10 over 
proof (but it is often sold at 10 under proof). The same sample 
was found to contain 6 gr. of solid matter per pint, 3 gr. of 
this being sugar. Whisky is sometimes put into sherry casks. 
If it becomes thick it should be filtered through paper-pulp 
filters; too often it is fined by chemical preparations, such as 
the following : First, a little carbonate of soda in solution is 
thoroughly mixed with the liquor, and then a corresponding 
quantity of Epsom salts is added. The precipitate of carbonate 
of magnesia which then forms carries down with it any floating 
particles. But salts of several kinds, and other impurities, are 
thus introduced into the spirit. 

A sample of so-called Scotch whisky supplied by a large 
London firm was found to be rather impure so far as fixed matter 

RUM, 199 

IS concerned. The total residue from one pint amounted to 
50 gr., 42 of which were sugar. 

Ri{7n is made from the molasses, or dark uncrystallisable 
liquid sugar, which is obtained in the preparation of solid sugar 
from cane juice. The skimmings from the vats in which the cane 
juice is clarified and boiled down are used in the same way. 
White rum is the pure distilled spirit, but ordinary Jamaica rum 
has been coloured with caramel. 

A genuine sample of rum from the West Indies was found to 
contain 363^ gr. of solid residue per pint, 18 gr. being sugar, 
and ij4 gr. being mineral matter. The chief natural flavouring 
material of rum is butyric ether, but this spirit sometimes receives 
in addition the flavour of the pineapple. 

Besides gin, brandy, whisky, and rum, there are many kinds 
of spirits from sources other than those already named, and pos- 
sessed of different flavours, artificial or natural. Amongst these 
we may name the following, premising that all the products are 
obtained by the distillation of a fermented solution of sugar — 
that sugar being naturally present in the original fruit, root, etc., 
or else produced by a change of starch into sugar. Distilled spirits 
are obtained from oranges, cashew-nuts, apricots, Jerusalem arti- 
chokes, sugar-millet, potatoes, flowering branch and sap of many 
palms (arrack), cider, cider lees, maize, honey, refuse of starch 
manufacture, etc. etc. A Japanese spirit, called " shochu," is dis- 
tilled from the dregs, in the press, in the preparation of rice-beer 
or "sak^." It contains, on an average, about 40 per cent, of 

The peculiar and often disagreeable odour and taste of dis- 
tilled spirits may be removed by careful and repeated distillation, 
and by very thorough filtration through animal charcoal. Some 
chemical substances are also found to be useful in aiding the 
separation of the fusel oil and other substances upon which the 
odour and flavour of different distilled spirits depend. 



When a considerable quantity of sugar is added to a flavoured 
spirit, a cordial or liqueur is the product. The flavouring mate- 
rials used in liqueurs are named in the next section of the 
present part of this volume : they are very numerous, and in- 
clude natural products, as fruits, seeds, bark, and roots, as well 
as the essential ohs and separated aromatic principles of these 
parts of plants. Orange bitters contain the essential oil of orange- 
peel and the bitter substance which accompanies it. Noyeau is 
flavoured with the essential oil of bitter almonds, which is iden- 
tical with that distilled from peach kernels, laurel leaves, etc. 
Cliartreuse contains a peculiar kind of turpentine, with the 
essential oil of angelica, as well as other aromatic oils. The 
names of other liqueurs sufficiently indicate the nature of the 
flavouring substances to which their taste and some other qualities 
are due. Absinthe is wormwood, and gives its name to a bitter 
liqueur much consumed in France. Tea, coffee, cocoa, and 
vanilla are also employed in the preparation of liqueurs or 
flavoured spirits. 

Some notion of the home-made spirits annually consumed in 
the United Kingdom may be gained from the following figures, 
which represent the quantities for the year ending March 31st, 
1899 : — 

England and Wales - * . - - 23,145,797 

Scotland 7j078,5U 

Ireland 4,io9,773 

Total 34,334,084 

Add to this total one-fourth more, or 8,583,521 gallons im- 
ported from abroad. 

The duty payable on imported spirits is 10 J. 10^. per gallon. 
Most of the rum imported (4,386,178 gallons were retained for 
home consumption in 1901) came from British Guiana and the 
British West Indies. 2,511,616 gallons of brandy were kept in 


190T, most of it from France, and of Geneva and other kinds 
1,940,263 gallons. 

§ 2. — Condiments, Spices, and Flavourers. 

The taste of many vegetable products is so definite and so 
strong that they cannot be used as substantive articles of diet. 
These fruits and seeds, etc., are, however, very useful as means 
of imparting agreeable flavours to the simpler food materials, 
which thus become not only more palatable but more wholesome. 
Still, the condiments, spices, and flavourers must be used with 
moderation, or their action on the processes of digestion and 
assimilation may become injurious. 

The chief active and eflScient ingredients of this group of 
food-adjuncts are volatile — that is, they may generally be dissi- 
pated by a moderate heat. Most of them are known as essential 
oils, but some are solid crystalline bodies or resinous matters. 
We shall here first describe the chief condiments, then the spices, 
and afterwards the group to which the name of flavourers has 
been given. 


French, Moutarde. German, Sevf. Italian, Mostarda. 

Black Mustard is the seed of Brassica nigra, a plant found 
wild in most parts of Europe. It is cultivated in Elsass, Bo- 
hemia, Italy, Holland, and England. It flourishes in the rich 
alluvial soils of Lincolnshire and Yorkshire. It was in common 
use in the Middle Ages as a condiment Black mustard seeds are 
but one-fifth the size of white mustard-seeds : they contain one- 
third of their weight of a bland fixed oil, while the pungent essen- 
tial oil is not produced till the ground seeds are wetted. This 
pungent oil contains both nitrogen and sulphur. The best flour 
of mustard contains nothing but black and white mustard seeds ; 
some manufacturers, however, produce an inferior material con- 
taining flour, turmeric, and capsicum. The .seeds of another kind 

202 PEPPER, 

of mustard {Brassica juncea) are largely substituted for the true 
black mustard. 

White Mustard^ the seeds of Brassica alba^ does not yield a 
pungent oil, but only a non-volatile rubefacient. Its cultivation 
is extending in England, as in Essex and Cambridgeshire. 

French, Poivre. German, Pfeffer. Italian, Pepe, 

Pepper consists of the fruits (twenty to thirty of which grow on 
one flower-stalk) of Piper nigrum^ a perennial climbing plant, a 
native of Travancore and Malabar, but introduced into Sumatra, 
Java, Siam, West Indies, etc. Pepper owes its pungency to 
about i}^ per cent, of an essential oil : it contains also from 5 to 
13 per cent, of piperine, as well as J^ per cent, of the volatile 
alkaloid piperidine. 

White Pepper is prepared from the above-named fruits when 
ripe by removing the dark pericarp or covering ; it thus becomes 
less pungent. 

Long Pepper consists of the unripe spike or fruit produced by 
two other species of Piper^ namely : P. longum, a native of 
Malabar ; and P. officinarum^ a native of the Indian Archipelago. 

Cayenne Pepper is prepared from the pods of one or more 
kinds of Capsicum. The small pods are called chillies, and are 
produced by C fastigiatum^ a plant which is wild in South India, 
and cultivated in tropical Africa and America. They are also 
derived from C, minimum^ another Indian species, which is grown 
likewise in Zanzibar and Sierra Leone. Chillies have been 
termed Spanish pepper, red pepper, and pod pepper. Another 
species of capsicum (C annuuni) yields the larger pods, generally 
called " capsicums " (the poivrons of the French) ; of these 
several varieties exist. This plant was grown in England by 
Gerarde in 1597 ; our supplies are derived chiefly from Zanzibar 
Natal, etc. The sweet red pepper of Spain is produced by 

FENNEL. 203 

C. tetragonum. The capsicum belongs to the Solanacem^ the Order 
which includes the potato, the tomato, and tobacco. Japan 
pepper consists of the fruit capsules of a plant belonging to the 
Rue Order, Zanthoxylum piperitiim. 


French, Raifort. German, Meer Reflig, Italian, Rafano, 

Horse-radish is the root of a common European perennial 
plant (Cochlearia Armoracia) \ it has been used as a condiment 
in England from the 17th century. It yields a pungent essential 
oil, which seems to be the same as that from black mustard. The 
poisonous roots of aconite {Aconiium Napellus), sometimes called 
monk's-hood or wolf's-bane, have been mistaken for those of 


French, Pircil. German, Fetrosilie. Italian, Frezzamolo, 

Parsley is Apium Petroselimim^ a native umbellifer of Sardinia j 
the leaves of which are used not only as a garnish, but are eaten 
fresh or dried as a flavourer. 


French, Menthe. German, Miinze. Italian, Menta, 

Mint or Spearmint is Mentha viridis^ a pleasant aromatic 
labiate herb, used in seasoning and for boiling with green peas. 


French, Thym. German, Thimian. Italian, Tlmo, 

Thyme is Thymus vulgaris, a small labiate shrub of South 

Europe, not a native of England. Its odour and taste are due to 

an essential oil known in trade as origanum oil Wild English 

thyme {Th. Serpyllum) is a different plant. 

Fennel is an umbelliferous plant (Fxniculum capillaceum\ 
found wild in the countries bordering on the Mediterranean : it 


has a perennial root stalk, while the Indian plant is an annual. 
The fruits of fennel (commonly called seeds), as well as the leaves, 
contain a peculiar aromatic essential oil, which is also found in 
anise-seeds. Chopped fennel leaves are used in the melted butter 
eaten with mackerel : the fruits give flavour to certain cordials. 

Marjoram {Origanum vulgar e\ Sweet Marjoram ((9. Ma- 
jor ana\ Sweet Basil {Ocyfnum hasilicu77i)^ and Sage {Salvia 
officinalis)^ are all labiate plants, and are known as pot-herbs. 
Their aromatic leaves are used either fresh or dried for seasoning 

Cumin is an umbelliferous plant {Cuminum Cyminum) which 
has been known from very early times. Its fruits contain an 
essential oil of very strong odour and taste : they are used in the 
preparation of some spirits and cordials, and form a constituent 
of curry-powder, Dutch cheese is sometimes flavoured with 

Turmeric is the root-stock of Curcuma longa. It is used as a 
yellow dye as well as a condiment : it is one of the chief ingre- 
dients of curry-powder. Our supplies come mainly from Bengal 
and Pegu — the Cochin turmeric is from another species of Cur- 
cuma. The odour of turmeric is due to an essential oil, present 
to the extent of i per cent. Curcumin is the yellow colouring 

Chervil {Anthriscus Cerefolium) is an umbelliferous plant, 
the young leaves of which are used in France for flavouring soups 
and salads. 

Dill is an umbelliferous plant {Anethum graveolens) resembling 
fennel. Its fruits are aromatic, but it is little used for culinary 
purposes in Europe. 

Anise, or Pimpinella Anisum, is a native of Asia Minor, 
Egypt, etc. : it is cultivated in many parts of South Europe. The 
fruits contain about 2 per cent, of an essential oil, which is used 
in flavouring cordials. 

Capers are the flower-buds, and sometimes the unripe fruits 

SPICES, 205 

of Capparis spinosa, a wall plant of South Europe. Our supplies 
are chiefly from Italy and France. Capers are prepared and pre- 
served by pickling them in vinegar. A common substitute lor 
them is found in the unripe fruits of the garden nasturtium 
(Tropceolum majus) : other substitutes are also in use on the 

Garlic {Allium sativum) is a native of Southern Europe and 
is closely related to the onion, but has a much stronger taste. Its 
bulb consists of ten or twelve parts called " cloves." It is used 
in sauces. 

Shallot, or Eschalote {Allium ascolonicuni)^ is a native of 
Palestine. Its cloves are milder than those of onions : it is used 
in pickles, salads, and seasoning, and to flavour vinegar. 

Chives {Allium Schcenoprasum) are a native of Britain. They 
form a favourite addition to soups in Scotland. 

Tarragon is Artemisia Dracunculus^ one of the Composite. 
It is closely related to the well-known aromatic plants, common 
wormwood and southernwood; but, unlike them, its leaves are 
undivided. It is a native of Siberia, but is cultivated to some 
extent in France as an ingredient in salads and pickles, and for 
flavouring vinegar. 

Savory is of two kinds : summer savory is Satureja hortensls^ 
a most aromatic annual plant, a native of Southern Europe ; the 
other is an evergreen, S, montana. They are used for sauces and 
seasoning, and admit of being dried. 


Spices are usually added to articles of food containing sugar, 
while condiments are eaten with meat, and generally with any 
foods which contain common salt. But it is impossible to draw 
any very distinct line between condiments and spices. Amongst 
the latter we may include — 

Ginger is the rhizome or root-stock of Zingiber ojfflclnali\ a 

2o6 SPICES. 

reed-like plant now grown in most hot countries : it has been long 
known and esteemed. Most of our ginger comes from the East 
and West Indies, and has been scraped. Its odour is due to an 
essential oil, its hot taste to a peculiar resin. Fresh or green 
ginger, consisting of the young shoots of the rhizome, forms, when 
boiled in syrup, an agreeable preserve. 

Cardamoms are the aromatic fruits of many plants belonging 
to the Ginger Order. Common cardamoms are the produce of 
Elettaria Carda7tiomum^ a reed-like perennial common in the 
moist mountain forests of Malabar ; " Grains of Paradise " are 
the fruits of Amomum Melegueta^ an allied plant of West Africa ; 
they are used to give pungency to spirits, etc., also in veterinary 

Cinnamon consists of the true bark or liber of a small ever- 
green tree of Ceylon, Cmnamomum zeylanicum : it was known in 
very ancient times as a spice. The crop is gathered about May 
and November, the two-year-old shoots being stripped and slightly 
fermented. Cinnamon contains a fragrant essential oil. 

Cassia is the bark of a Chinese species of Cinnamomum^ while 
"Cassia buds " are the unripe fruits of the same tree (C. Cassia), 

Sassafras is produced by Sassafras officinale^ a tree of North 

Nutmegs are the seeds of Myristica fragrans^ a handsome 
evergreen tree, wild in the Banda Isles, New Guinea, etc., and 
cultivated elsewhere with some success. The long nutmeg is 
the produce oi M.fatua. The nutmeg contains about 6 per cent 
of an aromatic and pungent essential oil. 

Mace is a covering of the nutmeg, and is termed an aril in 
botany. It contains about 4j^ per cent, of an aromatic oil. 

Cloves are the dried calyx and flower-buds of Eugenia caryo- 
phyllata^ an evergreen tree belonging to the Myrtle Order. Our 
supplies come chiefly from Zanzibar and the West Indies. Cloves 
are used in flavouring cordials and apple tarts and puddings. They 
contain a pungent aromatic oil in considerable quantity. 


Allspice or Pimento is a small dry berry, the fruit of Pimenta 
officinalis^ an evergreen tree of the Myrtle Order common in the 
West Indies. Pimento contains about 4 per cent, of an aromatic 
pungent oil much like that of cloves. Our supplies come wholly 
from Jamaica. 

Caraway, or Carum Carviy is a biennial umbelliferous plant 
something like a carrot. It is cultivated to some extent in Kent 
and Sussex ; much is imported from Holland. An acre yields 
from four to eight hundredweight of the fruits. They contain an 
essential oil, and are used to flavour cakes, confectionery, biscuits, 
and cordials. 

Peppermint is a labiate plant {Mentha Piperitct). It is grown 
in Surrey and Cambridgeshire, and is common, as a wild plant, 
in many parts of England. The whole plant, especially just before 
flowering, is rich in an essential oil of aromatic and even burning 
taste, which is used to flavour sweetmeats and cordials. 

CoiOANDER {Coriandrum sativum) is an umbelliferous plant 
of the south of Europe, and is cultivated largely in France. Tlie 
fruits of this plant contain a small quantity of essential oil : they 
are used in flavouring cordials. 

Angelica (Archangelica officinalis) is an umbelliferous plant 
common in most parts of Europe. Its roots, though of somewhat 
medicinal taste, are used as food in Norway and Lapland ; the 
stems, boiled in syrup, yield a pleasant sweetmeat ; the fruits are 
employed in flavouring some cordials, as Chartreuse. 


Some artificial and some natural products of strong taste and 
smell are included in this group of flavourers. In many instances 
flavourers are prepared by the distillation of seeds, fruits, etc., 
when the fragrant essential oil comes over and is condensed. 
Such essential oils dissolved in spirit of wine constitute the 
extracts or flavouring essences so much used in cookery. But 

2o8. VANILLA, 

the compound ethers, many of which may be prepared artificially, 
are now used for similar purposes. The following flavourers are 
in common use : — 

1. Essential Oils of Lemon, and of other fruits of the genus 
Citrus, as the orange and the citron. These oils occur in the 
rind of the fruits, whence they may be removed not only by dis- 
tillation but by pressure. The fresh peel of these fruits is used 
for flavouring, but it may be preserved by careful drying. It is 
also eaten after having been boiled in syrup as candied peel, 
and in several other forms. 

2. Oil of Bitter Almonds is obtained — by means of maceration 
in water, and subsequent distillation — from the bitter almond, a 
variety of Amygdalus communis. The same essential oil may be 
got from peach and plum kernels and from laurel leaves. The 
crude oil, as obtained by distillation, always contains prussic acid 
in considerable quantity. This most poisonous substance ought 
always to be removed from the bitter-almond flavouring used 
in cookery. No preparation of bitter almonds, no essence of 
"ratafia" or peach-kernels, should be employed in the kitchen 
unless it is guaranteed to be free from prussic acid. Cakes, 
custards, and blancmange are flavoured with oil of bitter almonds. 
The odour and taste of this oil are approached in two artificial 
products — nitrobenzol and benzonitril. Nitrobenzol, which is 
incorrectly termed artificial oil of bitter almonds, and sometimes 
essence of mirbane, is obtained by acting upon benzol (a liquid 
constituent of coal-tar) with nitric acid. It is poisonous, and has 
a much less agreeable odour and taste than the true oil. Benzo- 
nitril is obtained by the distillation of hippuric acid, a substance 
contained in the urine of horses and oxen. 

3. Vanilla. — The flavourer known under this name consists 
of the fruits of an orchid belonging to the genus Vanilla. The 
most highly-prized sort is obtained from V, planifolia, a plant 
indigenous to hot regions of Eastern Mexico. It was brought to 
Europe by the Spaniards. Other species of vanilla are also 


used, but are thought to be of inferior quality. The cultivation 
of vanilla was introduced into the French colony of Reunion in 
1817. The produce has increased from a few pounds in 1820 to 
nearly 500,000 lb. in 1888. The plant continues to bear until 
its thirtieth year, producing annually forty to fifty-five pods. 
Vanilla is also grown in Guadaloupe, Guiana, Java, Mauritius, 
Tahiti, the West Indies, etc. The pods of the various kinds of 
vanilla owe their rich and agreeable aroma to the presence of a 
white crystalline substance called vanillin. This substance is 
now made artificially from another natural product — coniferin, 
which is contained in the sapwood of pines. The artificial vanillin 
is not a mere imitation of the natural substance, but is absolutely 
identical with it. Vanilla is used to flavour cocoa, chocolate, 
ices, biscuits, creams, and even coffee and tea. 

4. Artificial Fruit Essences. — Although there are few cases 
in which the exact nature of the delicate flavours of fruit has 
been ascertained, yet there can be little doubt that the discovery 
has been made in some instances. Even were this not so, 
still there are now known many artificial products, chiefly the 
so-called compound ethers, which resemble very closely indeed in 
taste and smell the natural flavours of certain fruits. One of the 
most extensively used of all these is the acetate of amyl, a com- 
pound ether which may be regarded as derived from vinegar and 
potato oil by the removal of the elements of water. The so-called 
essence of Jargonelle pears is a spirituous solution of the acetate 
of amyl : it is employed in flavouring confectionery, especially 
pear-drops. Unfortunately it is used too freely, and is seldom 
sufficiently pure for this purpose. Other compound ethers impart 
the flavour of other fruits to articles of confectionery, liqueurs, 
and foods. Apple oil is chiefly valerate of amyl, pineapple oil is 
butyrate of ethyl and butyrate of propyl, and grape or cognac oil 
is a mixture of several compound artificial ethers. Many other 
flavourers of similar character have been artificially prepared : 
they are much used by the makers of cheap confectionery. 



There are some natural products used as spices, condiments, 
or flavourers, which we have not described; indeed, a volume 
would be required for the adequate treatment of this subject, for 
the details connected with these products are very numerous. 
Take one example. Saffron has long been used for colouring 
and flavouring confectionery, fancy biscuits, etc. The plant which 
yields it, the Crocus sativus, was grown in the reign of Edward III. 
The part used consists of the stigmas only of the flower, and the 
colouring substance they contain is so intense that one grain of 
the commercial saffron will colour yellow ten gallons of water. 
Our supplies of saffron now come chiefly from Spain and France, 
but the plant was once largely grown in England between Saffron 
Walden and Cambridge. To give similar details as to other 
flavourers would obviously occupy an amount of space much 
greater than the importance of the subject warrants ; we cannot 
therefore further dwell upon these numerous minor flavourers. 
But we may name in passing that sauces should be included 
here, for they usually contain mixtures of several condiments 
dissolved in weak vinegar and other liquids, and • that there 
are some materials of animal origin used in part for the same 

Of these latter the extract of meat invented by Liebig is the 
most important. It contains nitrogenous matters, such as 
creatine, with large quantities of potash salts — in fact, all the 
constituents of flesh which can be dissolved by hot water. Still, 
it is a stimulant and flavourer chiefly, and cannot be regarded 
as a substantive food. The same statement must be made with 
regard to a large number of similar preparations, sold under 
various names, and often flavoured with pepper and salt. They 
contain no albuminoids. 

§ 3- — Vinegar, Pickles, and Acids. 
There are several acids in most vegetable products. They 
exist partly in the form of salts, and partly in the free state. 

ACIDS, 211 

The most common and most important vegetable acids are 
these four : Citric Acid, Tartaric Acid, Malic Acid, and Oxalic 
Acid. To these must be added a fifth acid, the Acetic ; which, 
however, is mainly produced artificially by the change or oxida- 
tion of alcohol or even of sugar, but which occurs also to a 
small extent in some fruits, especially when they are over-ripe or 

All the acids probably act in the processes of digestion and 
nutrition in much the same way. They exert a solvent action 
upon many of the nutrients, but their own nutritive power is very 
small, for they cannot be taken in sufficient quantity to give 
out any appreciable amount of heat or force. More than this, 
they are already highly oxidized products, and require but a small 
further addition of oxygen to be converted into the final products 
of oxidation — carbonic acid and water : this is especially the case 
with oxalic acid. 

Citric Acid and its salts — the citrates — are particularly 
abundant in the fruits of some plants of the orange tribe, more 
particularly in the lemon. From this fruit the crystallised citric 
acid of commerce is separated on a large scale. The expressed 
juice is boiled down, and imported into this country in a con- 
centrated form. Citric acid is an acid of agreeable taste and 
quite wholesome, even when taken in rather large quantities. 
It is found in the free state in many unripe English fruits, as 
gooseberries; but it is also present in the form of citrates of 
potash, lime, and other bases. 

Tartaric Acid is the characteristic acid of grapes. It occurs 
chiefly in the form of the acid tartrate of potash. This substance 
is the main constituent of argol^ the crust which is deposited from 
wine. When purified, argol yields tartar, or cream of tartar, 
which is identical with the acid tartrate of potash. Tartaric 
acid is a solid crystalline substance, which, like citric acid, is 
easily soluble in water. It is a less pleasant and wholesome 
acid than citric acid. 

P 2 


Malic Acid is present in many fruits, especially in those of 
the Rose Order. It may be extracted from apples and pears. 

Oxalic Acid, more particularly in the form of the acid-oxalate 
of potash, is present in the common sorrel {Rumex acetosa)^ in 
the wood sorrel {Oxalis acetosella)^ in the garden rhubarb {Rheum 
rhaponticum)^ and in many other plants. It is the least whole- 
some of all the acids we have named ; indeed, it acts, even in 
moderate doses, as an irritant poison. 

Acetic Acid is best known in the form of vinegar, which is a 
weak mixture of real acetic acid and water^ usually flavoured with 
burnt sugar, or malt extract, or some condimental herb, as tarragon 
or chillies. Four kinds or varieties of vinegar are commonly 
used in Europe. These are — i. Malt Vinegar ; 2, Wine Vinegar ; 
3, Wood Vinegar ; 4, Vinegar from starch, sugar, etc. The acid 
in all of these products is identical, but there are evident differ- 
ences in flavour and odour between the difi"erent sorts. It is 
usual, however, by the addition of colouring matter and flavouring 
essences, to render the detection of the sources of the inferior 
vinegars very difiicult. All the varieties of vinegar, save that 
obtained by means of the destructive distillation of wood, are 
formed by the oxidation of alcohol. This compound, however 
formed, whether by the direct fermentation of sugar, or from 
starchy materials, may be readily oxidized, gaining one additional 
proportion of oxygen and losing two proportions of hydrogen. 
The oxidation of weak alcohol into acetic acid may be accom- 
plished by simple exposure of the liquid to warm air, but the 
change is usually accompanied and greatly aided by the pre- 
sence of a vegetable organism, the so-called vinegar-plant. 

Good vinegar contains 5 per cent, of real or glacial acetic 
acid. Sulphuric acid is sometimes found in it to a larger extent 
than allowed by law, which is i part in 1,000. A solution of 
chloride of barium produces a more or less dense white pre- 
cipitate in vinegar containing free sulphuric acid or sulphates ; 
the latter salts occur naturally in malt vinegar. 


Vinegar is extensively used not only as a condiment in sauces 
and salads, but for the preparation of a great variety of pickles. 
The vegetables thus preserved in vinegar include the greater 
number of those which we have described in the second part of 
this volume. Among them we may name unripe walnuts, onions, 
cauliflowers, gherkins, French beans, red cabbage, capsicums, 
Samphire, mushrooms, and small unripe maize-cobs. Care should 
be taken that pickles are free from copper, a poisonous metal 
which sometimes finds its way into the vinegar through the 
solvent action of that acid upon the vessels used in preparing 

§ 4. — Tea, Coffee, and Cocoa. 

The group of food-adjuncts which we are now about to study 
is distinguished from all the preceding groups by the presence of 
a peculiar class of active principles called alkaloids. These con- 
tain the element nitrogen, which is absent from nearly all the 
essential oils, from all the kinds of alcoholic liquor, and from all 
the acids which occur in articles of food. Many of these alkaloids 
act powerfully on the nervous system, generally as sedatives and 
narcotics. Some of them are not only medicinal, but, even in 
small doses, actually poisonous. But the action of tea, coffee, 
and of many other food-adjuncts which owe their properties 
mainly to the presence of certain alkaloids, is often greatly 
modified by the other constituents of these food-adjuncts. Tea, 
for instance, contains a fragrant essential oil which is stimulating ; 
while the presence of tannin, an astringent substance, further 
modifies the general result produced by the theine contained in 
an infusion of tea. 

We will first examine into the chemistry of the ordinary 
beverages — tea, coffee, cocoa, etc., which closely resemble one 
another in the peculiarity of their active alkaloids ; afterwards a 
few notes on tobacco and opium shall be given. 

214 TEA. 


French, Th'e. German, Thee. Italian, TL 
{Camellia thea.) 

The plant which yields the tea of commerce is a native of 
Bengal ; it is a shrub belonging to the same genus as the camellia. 
It has been long grown in China, and may indeed be indigenous 
to parts of that empire. The regular importation of tea into 
England from China began in the year 1673, when 4,713 pounds 
were received. Our supplies now come mainly from China, India, 
and Ceylon, but a good deal of tea is grown in Japan. In the 
last-named country the tea-plant occupies about 2}i per cent, of 
the cultivated land j much of the produce is retained for home 
consumption, but a good deal is exported, chiefly to Canada and 
the United States. Japanese tea is green. The recent extension 
of tea-cultivation in British India and in Ceylon, and the improved 
methods of curing the leaf there adopted, have greatly increased 
the consumption of Indian and Ceylon teas in this country, and 
have greatly diminished the imports of tea from China, as the 
following comparison will show : — 

Imports of Tea, for Home Consumption, in lbs. 

1877. 1901. 

From China . - - - 154,990,873 ... 16,729,637 
India ... - 30,940,724 ... 158,662,545 
Ceylon - - - - 492 ... 102,063,908 

There are three varieties of the tea-plant, from each of which 
both green and black tea may be prepared. Black tea is made 
from leaves which have been allowed to ferment before drying ; 
green tea from leaves which have been quickly dried. However, 
large quantities of tea were formerly artificially coloured or faced, 
though the practice is a very deceptive one, even where the 
colouring materials used are not injurious to health. Old leaves, 
damaged leaves, and exhausted or spent leaves may be so faced 
with black-lead, indigo, Prussian blue, French chalk, or turmeric, 
that a fictitious bloom is imparted to them j and the four last-named 



materials are used in imitating or enhancing the hue of green tea. 
Different qualities of strength and flavour in tea are due to the 
varieties of the plant, to the soil and climate, to the age of the 
leaves, and to the mode of curing and drying them. The younger 
leaves yield teas of the highest quality and the most delicate 
flavour. These kinds contain more soluble matters than the older 
leaves. Black tea contains less theine, essential oil, and tannin 
than green tea. Exhausted or spent leaves and leaves which 
have been accidentally damaged by water are often re-dried, 
gummed, and faced with colouring matters ; such teas and those 
adulterated with mineral matters and the leaves of other plants, 
are known in China as lie tea. One good test of the genuineness 
of a sample of tea consists in crushing loo grains, and boiling it 
with water till nothing more is thus extracted. When this liquor 
is boiled down to dryness, the residue of fixed soluble matters 
thus separated should weigh about 35 grains, certainly not less 
than 26, for in the latter event the sample consists of or contains 
damaged, spent, or old leaves. 

Good average black tea, as imported, may be fairly represented 
by the following figures : — 



Tannin . . - 
Chlorophyll and resin 
Essential oil 
Minor extractives 
Cellulose, etc. - 
Mineral matter - 

00 parts. 

lu I lb. 
oz. gr. 


I 122 


2 350 




2 350 






I 164 


5 193 

6-3 .. 

I 4 

Although the infusion of tea has little actual nutritive value, 
it increases respiratory action and excites the brain to greater 
activity. The stimulating effects of tea upon the nervous system 
are due to the essential oil and the theine : the tannin is an 
astringent. It has been estimated that half the human race now 
use tea either habitually or occasionally. The amount consumed 
per head varies greatly in different countries : in England it 



amounts to 6j lb. ; but in Germany to no more than 0*05 of 

a lb. 


French, Cafe. German, Kaffee, Italian, CaffK 

(Coffea Arabica.) 

The shrub or small tree which yields the seed coffee is 
a native of Abyssinia. This plant belongs to the Rubiaceas, an 
extensive order, including the 'Peruvian bark, ipecacuanha, and 
madder plants. Coffee is now grown throughout the tropics. 
Our principal supplies come from Ceylon, but Java, the West 
Indies, Brazil, and Central America produce large quantities. 

It appears that more than one distinct species of coffee plant 
yields the berries met with in commerce, and that the Coffea 
liberica is superior to the ordinary kind or variety, being more 
robust, flourishing at lower elevations, and yielding a larger berry. 
Originally the coffee plant was introduced into Arabia in the 
fifteenth century, while it was not till the year 1652 that the first 
coffee-shop was opened in London. 

The fruit of the coffee tree, which presents a superficial 
resemblance to a red cherry, contains two seeds. The soft pulp 
and the parchment-like covering of the seed having been removed, 
the imported coffee " beans," as they are now called, are roasted. 
Thus moisture is driven off and a fragrant oil produced, to a 
trace of which the strong aroma of roasted coffee is due. 

Many cheap vegetable matters, as acorns and chicory and 
parsnip roots, are used, when roasted, to adulterate ground coffee. 

Roasted coffee generally contains — 

In 100 parts. 

Water - . • 
Albuminoids - • 
Theine (Caffeine) 
Fat or oil - 


Minor extractives 
Cellulose, etc. • 
Mineral matter - 






















Coffee owes its stimulant eff<?ct on the circulatory and nervous 



systems to the theine and aromatic oil present. In order that 
coffee may be enjoyed in perfection, not only must it be free from 
admixture with the cheap and miserable adulterants commonly 
stated to improve its taste, but it must be freshly roasted to the 
right extent, freshly ground, and so made into a beverage that its 
soluble constituents are extracted without its aroma being dissi- 
pated. For household use Fletcher's rapid gas coffee-roaster is 
well adapted. 

(Theohroma Cacao!) 

The chocolate tree occurs both wild and cultivated in the 
northern parts of South America, and also in Central America, as 
far north as Mexico. It is grown chiefly in Brazil, Guiana, 
the British West Indies and Ceylon. There are four species of 
Theobroma known; the beans of the Guatemala cocoa (Th, 
aiigustifoUa) are of particularly fine quality. 49,832,354 lbs. of 
cocoa, raw and manufactured, were imported in 1901, chiefly from 
the British West Indies. 

A single fruit of this tree contains many seeds closely packed 
in a little pulp. Cocoa beans should be fermented for three to 
seven days, with plantain and other leaves, before being dried in 
the sun. The cleaned cocoa seeds, after drying, roasting, and 
winnowing from their husks, are broken into coarse fragments 
known as nibs. These, after long boiling in water and removal of 
the floating cocoa-butter, yield a light beverage, milder in its 
action upon the respiratory and nervous system than tea or coffee. 

Good cocoa-nibs contain — 



Fat - 

Theobromine - 


Tannin • 

Gum, etc. 

Cellulose and insoluble matter 

Mineral matter - 

100 parts. 



T fb. 





















Theobromine is the active principle of cocoa ; the taste and 
aroma of cocoa are due mainly to an essential oil. For general 
use cocoa is a milder, less stimulating, and more nutritious beve- 
rage than tea or coffee. 

Prepared Cocoa, 

Most of the cocoa consumed in Europe is prepared for use by 
admixture with other substances, or by removing part of the fat or 
"cocoa-butter." Cocoa-nibs, if simply ground, would yield a 
rich but heavy fodd, not a beverage. It may, indeed, be shown 
that loo parts of cocoa-nibs contain carbohydrates and fat equi- 
valent to 132 parts of starch, while the albuminoids present 
amount to 12 or 13 parts — the ratio of the latter to the former 
being thus as i to 11. 

The chief forms of prepared cocoa are — 

Soluble Cocoa. Mixtures of ground cocoa, with starch, etc., 
are called soluble cocoa. With boiling water a thick mucilage is 
produced, in which the finely-ground cocoa remains suspended — 
it does not dissolve— the term " soluble " is therefore incorrect. 

Chocolate is cocoa ground up with sugar and flavoured with 
vanilla, sometimes with bitter almonds as well, or with cinnamon 
and other spices j it generally contains some starch or flour. 

Flake and Rock Cocoa are made from the whole seed, nib and 
husk being ground together to a paste. There are, however, three 
grades, the second and third containing an excessive proportion 
of husk. 

Pressed Cocoa (such as Van Houten's) is prepared from cocoa- 
nibs — a small proportion of the cocoa-butter having been pre- 
viously expressed so as to leave about 33 per cent. 

Mat^, or Paraguay Tea. 

{Ilex paraguayensis.) 

In Paraguay, North Corrientes, Chaco, and South Brazil, the 
leaves of a small tree are used just in the same way that tea is 


employed in China, India, and Japan. The infusion of these 
leaves contains tannin, an aromatic oil, and some theine. Indeed, 
it is a singular and most instructive fact that the chief charac- 
teristic constituent of tea, coffee, mat^, Yapon tea {Ilex cassine)^ 
guarana-bread, and the African kola-nuts, is identical — the alka- 
loid theine or caffeine. Even cocoa contains a very nearly-related 
substance — theobromine. Naturally, all these plants have come 
into general use amongst the inhabitants of the countries where 
they flourish; and now it is ascertained that their chief physio- 
logical properties depend upon the presence of a substance which 
is identical in five of them, and closely allied in the sixth. 

Mat^ is prepared by drying, and then gently roasting the 
leaves, still attached to their stems and branches, the whole tree 
being often cut down for this purpose. When the drying and 
roasting have rendered the leaf brittle, and developed the aromatic 
oil which gives the peculiar flavour and odour to mat^, then the 
branches are removed to large rough mortars, which are merely 
pits dug in the ground, where they are beaten and bruised till the 
leaves are reduced to fragments. The mat^, after sorting, is next 
placed in fresh bullock-skins, well rammed, and placed in the sun 
to dry. 

The composition of mate is somewhat variable. Several sorts 
are known in the South American markets : caa-cuys, the head of 
the leaf; caa-miri^ the leaf torn from its mid-rib and veins with- 
out roasting ; and caagiiaza^ or yerva de palos of the Spaniards, 
which contains the whole leaf with leaf-stalks and small branches, 
roasted. In consequence of these different qualities, and the 
crude mode of preparation in general use, it is found that the 
quantity of mineral matter in mate is twice as great in some 
samples as in others. The average amount of tannin may be set 
down as 16 per cent, while the theine is present to the extent of 
about 1*5 per cent. 

Mat^ does not yield a wholesome beverage fit for habitual 
use. It acts upon the nervous system mainly, but it affects the 

220 COCA 

digestive tract also, and often injuriously. The habitual use of 
hot, strong infusions of mat^ is very prejudicial to the general 
health, although the occasional employment of this food-adjunct 
after great fatigue is refreshing and restorative. But confirmed 
mate-drinkers, like opium-eaters, prefer to give up their food 
rather than their daily allowance of mat^. 

Mat^ is prepared for drinking by pouring boiling water upon 
a teaspoonful of the powdered leaves in a cup or calabash, adding 
a little sugar, and sucking up the infusion through a small tube or 
'' bombilla." 

GuARANA-BREAD is another substitute for tea. It is used 
extensively in Brazil and other parts of South America. It is 
prepared from the seeds of a small climbing plant {PaiilUnia 
sorbilis). The seeds are roasted, ground, mixed with a little 
water, and pressed into sausage-like forms. Pieces broken from 
one of these rolls have merely to be infused in cold water to 
form a refreshing and grateful beverage, said also to be a valuable 
remedy in sick-headache. It contains no less than 5 per cent, of 

Coca, the leaves of Erythroxylon Coca, may perhaps be appro- 
priately named in this section. This plant, which is used as a 
stimulant in Peru, contains an alkaloid called cocaine, which in 
good samples of the dry coca -leaves may amount to ij4 per 
cent The employment of cocaine, as an anodyne and local 
anaesthetic in surgery and medicine, has extended greatly during 
recent years. It is believed to possess the power of sustaining 
strength and endurance during unusual bodily exertion. This 
plant, the coca, is perfectly distinct from the Cocos nucifera and 
the Theobroma Cacao. 

Under the designation of " tea substitutes ^ we may group 
many vegetable products which are, or have been, used in dif- 
ferent parts of the world. With the exception of the kola-nut 
of Central Africa, and Yapon tea, none of these minor tea-sub- 
stitutes are knojvn to contain the same alkaloid as tea, coffee. 


and mate. We name a few of the different plants yielding such 
herb teas. 

Swiss tea, from several Alpine plants ; 

Bosjes and Boer tea ( Cliffortia ilicifolia and Cyclopia vogelii) ; 

Hottentot tea {Helichrysum serpylUfolium) ; 

Mountain tea {Gauliheria proawibens) ; 

Lime tea (flowers and leaves of Tilia euro peed) ; 

Labrador tea {Ledum palustre and Z. latifolium) ; 

Kola tea (nuts of Cola acuminata) ; 

Yapon tea {Ilex cassine) ; 

Appalachian tea {Prinvs glaber) ; 

Corossal tea {Anona muricata) \ 

Sumatra tea (leaves of Coffea arabica) ; 

Phaskomylia tea (leaves of Salvia triloba) ; 

Kaffir tea {Helichrysum nudiflorum) ; 

Botany-Bay tea {Smilax glycyphylla) ; 

Anise tea ( Vacdnium hispidulum) ; 

Bourbon tea {Angracum fragra7is), 

§ 5. — Tobacco and Opium. 

Amongst the food-adjuncts we give the last and lowest place 
to tobacco and opium. If there be difficulty in fixing the exact 
position which we should assign to tea or to spices, such difficulty 
is more decided still in the case of tobacco. But although we 
cannot regard tobacco as a true food, we should remember that 
there are many circumstances under which really nutritious sub- 
stances cease to be nutritious. The work done by the various 
nutrients which we have considered is not always the same, for it 
varies with the quantities consumed, and the modes in which they 
are used. Thus a nutrient taken in excess may become, in part, 
at least, a food-adjunct ; while a food-adjunct may become a 
medicine or even a poison. Water itself affords a good illustration 
of some of these points. A due daily supply of it is necessary 


as a nutrient ; but a considerable excess of it will act medicinally 
and it becomes hurtful and in some sense poisonous when still 
larger quantities are consumed. And we see that while all the 
true nutrients are equally necessary to the human body, provided 
that they are given in due proportion and quantity, the food- 
adjuncts have very variable values. Alcoholic liquors afford 
a characteristic instance of this fact. Taken in limited quantity, 
they may justly be regarded as belonging to that section of the 
food-adjuncts which perhaps best deserves the name of accessory- 
food. But it is too easy to pass this limit, and to change the 
office performed by alcohol into that of a poison. Tobacco and 
opium must be ranked either as medicines or poisons. Tobacco 
is the less baneful of the two, but its excessive use is followed by 
a disordered state of the nervous system, and may lead to 
dangerous and even fatal diseases. 


French, Tabac. German, Tabak. Italian, Tabaccho. 
{Nicotiana Tabacum^ and other species.) 

This plant furnishes the most generally used of all the 
narcotics. A native of America, it was introduced thence into 
many other parts of the world, and has been cultivated in Europe 
for more than three centuries. Sir Walter Raleigh much promoted 
its use in England. It is remarkable that the United States, 
although the largest tobacco-growing country in the world, actually 
took in 1887 no less than 5,771,000 lb. of tobacco grown in 
Sumatra for the use of the cigar manufacturers of New York. 
In the year 190T, the total amount of raw and manufactured 
tobacco imported into the United Kingdom for home use was 
78,412,082 lb., chiefly from the United States, Holland, Turkey, 
Japan, China, and the East Indies. The customs duties on the 
various kinds of raw and manufactured tobaccos range, per lb., 
between ^s. 6d. on cigars and 3^-. on raw tobacco containing at 
least 10 per cent, of moisture. 


It appears that there are several species of plants which yield 
the tobacco of commerce, although they are all included in the 
genus Nicotiana. The most abundant sort is furnished by 
N. Tahacum ; N, rusitca yields much of the East Indian tobacco, 
U'hile N. persica is the tobacco of Shiraz. Other species are 
N. quadrivalvis^ N. miiUivalvis^ and N. repanda. But the dis- 
tinctions between these plants, and the several sorts of prepared 
tobaccos which they are assumed to furnish, are not yet accurately 
known in all cases. 

The composition of dried tobacco leaves varies greatly with 
the conditions of their growth, as well as with the sort of plant 
grown. The mineral matter is considerable (13 to 28 per cent.) 
and includes much nitre, the presence of which gives to the dry 
leaf its peculiar property of slowly smouldering away with slight 
deflagrations, like amadou or tinder. The most important prin- 
ciple or constituent of tobacco is, however, the nicotine^ a nitro- 
genous substance belonging to the group of the alkaloids. This 
nicotine has a very powerful action upon the nervous system, 
being a narcotic, like the morphine, narcotine, etc., found in 
opium. Some of the more delicate tobaccos of Havannah contain 
less than 2 per cent, of nicotine ; the stronger tobaccos, as 
Virginian shag, contain 6 per cent. As much as 10 per cent, has 
been found in some samples grown in Europe. When the 
tobacco is burnt in the operation of smoking, the nicotine is in 
great part destroyed, other volatile alkaloids (picoline, etc.) being 
produced from it. These are contained in the smoke, are liquid 
like nicotine, and are also poisonous. The average amount of 
water in commercial tobacco is 13 per cent. 

The preparation of tobacco leaves for use by drying, fermen- 
tation, and other processes, alters very much their natural 
character and flavour. Sometimes various " liquors" and ** spices" 
or "pickles "are used in this treatment of the leaves, different 
flavours being developed thereby. Snuff is prepared chiefly from 
the stalks and ribs of the tobacco leaf. The leaves of Liatris 



odoratissima are used largely for scenting snuff. This composite 
plant is abundant in the moist lowlands of North America, par- 
ticularly in Florida. Tonquin beans {Dipteryx odoratd)^ from 
Guiana, are used for the same purpose. 

The consumption of tobacco per head of the entire population 
may be approximately set down as : — 



1 '^• 

Netherlands - 

- 7*1 


• - 3'3 

Sweden - - - 2'0 

Belgium - - 

- 57 

Austria - - 

• - 30 

United Kingdom 1*89 

United States - 

- 5*3 

Norway - - 

- - 2*3 

Spain - - - - 17 

Denmark - - 

- 4-2 

Europe - - ■ 

■ - 2*3 

Russia - - - - 1*4 

Germany - - 

- 3'5 

France • - - 

• - 2*2 

Italy - - - - 1*25 


Opium is the dried latex or milky juice of the opium poppy 
{Palaver somniferutn). It is procured by making cuts in the 
unripe capsule, and collecting the juice which exudes. The 
half-dried juice is moulded into small masses, and then finally 
covered with leaves of different plants, or with thin protective 
coverings of other materials, such as mica. The opium-poppy is 
extensively grown in Egypt, Asia Minor, Persia, Algeria, and the 
East Indies. The large Chinese demand for opium is supplied 
partly from British India ; but the opium-poppy is now grown in 
every province of the Chinese Empire, the islands of Formosa * 
and Hainan being the only places where it is not cultivated. 
Szechuen alone produces annually no less than 89,263 tons ; in 
this province seven-tenths of tlie adult males are now opium 
smokers. In the province of Yunnan the poppy-fields occupy 
one-third of the cultivated area. The imperial Chinese edicts 
prohibiting the production of opium are a dead letter. The 
opium imported from India to China is now mainly consumed by 
the wealthier natives. In the European market the best opium 
(known as Turkey or Smyrna opium) is the produce of Asia 

* Formosa now belongs to Japan, 

OPIUM 22$ 

Opium contains a large number of different alkaloids or active 
principles, seventeen of these having been already described. The 
most important of these constituents is morphine, to which alka- 
loid the chief characteristic properties of opium are mainly due. 
The quantities of morphine present in different samples of opium 
differ much : Smyrna opium sometimes contains as much as 14 and 
sometimes less than 7 per cent. Most of the alkaloids of opium 
are poisonous : thebaine is the most virulent. 

Opium is very valuable as a medicine, acting in small doses 
as a sedative and anodyne, alleviating pain, and producing a 
quiet sleep. When smoked, as in China and many other parts of 
the world, it is sometimes consumed with tobacco or some other 
leaf in a pipe. Indeed, many of the Chinese tobaccos contain 
opium. It produces a peculiar soothing effect, but the habitual 
and excessive use of opium is most hurtful to mind as well as 
body. After all, it is doubtful whether opium should find a place 
in a food-collection. The same observation applies also to hemp- 
resin, the narcotic substance produced by the common hemp-plant 
(Cannabis sativa)^ when grown in India and other tropical and 
sub-tropical countries. The betel-nut {Areca Catechu) is the seed 
of a palm. It is chewed along with the leaf of the betel-pepper 
(Chavica betk and C. Siriboci), The mixture contains much 
tannin, an aromatic oil, and one or more alValoids. It is a mild 


The work and ofHces performed by human food been 
already sketched in the First Part of this handbook. What we 
propose to describe in the few pages which remain at our dis- 
posal is the nature of various actual dietaries. But we will first 
look at the relative values of different constituents and articles of 
food, before we pass on to consider how these food-materials are 
actually employed in the daily rations of individuals, of groups of 
persons engaged in similar occupations, and of nations. 

§ I. — Food-equivalents. 

As several different kinds of compound nutrients are necessary 
to sustain life and activity, to calculate the amount of carbon and 
the amount of nitrogen, etc., in a day's ration will not alone 
suffice to show the dietetic value of that ration. We must first of 
all be sure that the carbon and the nitrogen are present in such 
forms as are practically available for nutrition. 

Not only must these elements be taken in the form of compound 
substances of which they form a part, but our selection of such 
compounds is restricted. So nitrogen must be supplied mainly 
by albuminoids, although osseids can be substituted for them to 
a limited extent and for some purposes. And the supplies of carbon 
must come either from oils and fats or from such carbohydrates 
as starch, dextrin, and sugar, the albuminoids and osseids them- 
selves being, however, capable of furnishing carbon as well as 
nitrogen. Neither uncombined nitrogen (as that in the atmo- 
sphere}, nor uncombined carbon (as that of charcoal), is of the 
least value in food. And the same statement may be made as to 


the nitrogen in nitrates and the carbon in carbonates — these two 
classes of salts being cited as instances from a very large number 
which might have been named, and these remarks as to nitrogen 
and carbon may be supplemented by similar statements as to 
hydrogen. This element in a free state is of no service in the 
animal economy, nor is it of any use when combined with carbon 
only, as in the large class of hydro-carbons. Its more important 
compound with oxygen — namely, water — has many functions to 
fulfil, as we have previously pointed out. But hydrogen as it 
exists in the oils or fats and in the albuminoids, performs one 
important office in a dietary : it gives heat and therefore actual 
energy during its combination with oxygen. The hydrogen in the 
carbohydrates cannot be regarded as having any potential energy, 
since it is already associated, in these compounds, with all the 
oxygen with which it can unite. 

The proportion which the above nitrogen-compounds bear to 
these nutrient carbon-compounds has also to be considered. 
Something has been said on this subject in Part I., but further 
details will be given presently as to this " nutrient-ratio." Mean- 
while we may state that there are three methods of estimating the 
practical value of any actual or given dietary or daily ration — 
methods which may be used also in constructing new dietaries, 
and new rations for a day. One of these methods is to ascertain 
the amount of energy stored up in the nutrients of the ration, 
and to compare the number or value thus calculated with the 
value required. Alone, this method is insufficient, for it takes no 
account of the nutrient-ratio, and thus a ration in which there was 
ample energy for the day's work, internal and external, might be 
quite unsuitable as containing an excess or defect of albuminoids, 
of fat, or of carbohydrates. The two other methods involve the 
calculation of the nutrient-ratio — one or other of them should be 
used in connection with the first method. We may ascertain the 
amounts of nitrogen and of carbon ; or the amounts of albu- 
minoids and of carbohydrates, adding to these the starch-equiva- 

Q 2 



lent of any oil or fat present in the rations. Of course having 
ascertained these amounts^ we may learn their ratios. 

Now as to the valuation of a dietary by means of the first 
method. In order to find out the amount of energy which it can 
yield we multiply the number of ounces in it of albuminoids by 
178*3, the number of ounces of fat or oil by 401*9, and the 
number of ounces of digestible carbohydrates by 178*3; in 
practice, we first add together the albuminoids and carbohydrates 
and multiply the sum by 178*3. The resulting values 2Xt foot-tons 
(see p. 41), and will prove somewhat higher than the earlier 
results obtained by Dr. Frankland, several of which, however, we 
shall retain, as they are frequently quoted in books on food and 
dietetics. An example will make this calculation clear. We 
take the standard dietary given on p. 52. The albuminoids 
and carbohydrates added together amount to 15 oz. 288 gr., 
which is just 15*6 oz. This multiplied by 178*3 gives 2781*5 
foot-tons. We then multiply the fat, 3 oz. 337 gr. or 3*77 
oz., by 401*9, and get 1,515*2 foot-tons. Adding these pro- 
ducts together, we reach a total of 4,296*7 foot-tons. We may now 
adopt the same plan with individual articles of food. The 
following table includes a few of such calculated values, the 
analyses given on the previous pages of this handbook providing 
the necessary data. The foot-tons recorded in this table are those 
furnished by one pound of the edible part of each food j the figures 
set down in the last column give the number of pounds, ounces, 
and tenths of an ounce of each food needed in order to supply the 
daily quantum of energy, and may be called, from this point of 
view, food-equivalents ; — 


Butter - - < 

Oatmeal - 

Cheese, Gloucester 


Pearl barley - 

Rice, cleaned - 


from I lb. 





lb. oz. 











Bread - 
Beef, rather fat 
Beef, rather lean 
Eggs . 
Potatoes - 
Milk, cows* • 
Turnips - 

from I lb. 








lb. oz. 






10 '4 











The practical deductions from the figures in this table are 
easily drawn. We see that a little over 12 oz. of butter will 
supply the same amount of energy (heat and work) as i lb. 8^ oz. 
of oatmeal or 7 lb. 6^ oz. of potatoes. But as the first of these 
foods contains no nitrogen, and the second and third an in- 
sufficient proportion, it is clear that we must replace a portion of 
these amounts, in any daily ration, by means of a suitable 
quantity of a food containing an excess of nitrogen, such, for 
instance, as No. 3 in our table — cheese. We shall recur to this 
subject presently ; meanwhile we give a more extended table, in 
which the number of foot-tons of work producible from i lb. of 
different articles of food is recorded. These figures are those 
previously mentioned as having been obtained by Dr. Frankland : — 


Beef fat - 


Cheese, Cheshire 


Arrowroot starch 

Wheaten flour • 

Pea meal - 

Ground rice 


Cane sugar • • 

Egg yolk . 

Grape sugar 

Egg, hard-boiled - 

Bread crumb 

Foot -tons 
from I lb. 












Lean of boiled ham • 

> 1 

from I lb. 

• 1,041 

Mackerel - - . . 

. 1,000 

Lean of beef 


Lean of veal 


Guinness's stout • 

' 665 


. 618 

Bass's ale • 

. 491 

MUk . 
White of egg 

> < 


■ 357 



We may here remind the reader that the greatest amount of 
work outside the body which the oxidation of i lb. of the above 



substances within the body could enable a man to perform would 
be about one-fifth of the several amounts given in the table. 

The relative cost of the several quantities of the above sub- 
stances, which would contain the same amount of energy and so 
be capable of performing the same amount of work, is given in 
the following 

Table of the Weight and Cost of various articles of Food 
required to be oxidized in the body, in order to r/vtsli: 
140 lb. to the height of io,000 feet : — 

Name of Food. 

Ground rice 

Oatmeal - 

Wheaten flour - 


Cane sugar 

Pea meal - 

Beef fat - 

Potatoes - 

Commercial grape sugar 

Cocoa nibs 

Cheshire cheese 


Cabbages - 



Hard-boiled eggs 



Cod-liver oil 

Mackerel - 

Guinness's stout 

Lean beef - 

Bass's pale ale - 

Lean veal - 

White of egg 

Lean ham, boiled 

Whiting - 

Isinglass - 

Weight in lbs. 

I '231 





5 -068 



12 '020 

9685 .. 




6|4f bottles 


9 bottles .. 





per lb 








iH ... 





















1/2 ... 











5 per quart 









5 per bottle 






5 per bottle 






6 ... 


4 'A 












In the above table the force-producing value of the fermented 
liquors named is exaggerated, for the alcohol they contain is very 
imperfectly utilised in the body, not more than about i oz. per 
24 hours being thoroughly oxidized. 



It is clear, from what we have already stated, that to construct 
a daily ration it will not suffice merely to provide food-stuifs ade- 
quate to furnish energy equal to 4,300 foot-tons, we must bring in 
one or other of our methods for adjusting the nutrient-ratio of the 
day's food. This was formerly done by assuming the standard 
food of a day to contain about 300 grains of nitrogen to 4,900 
grains of carbon. We give, in the two tables that follow, the 
quantities of various food-stuffs which would be required in order 
to furnish these amounts of nitrogen and carbon respectively. 
We assume the albuminoids to contain 16 per cent, of nitrogen ; 
the fats to contain 75 per cent, of carbon; the carbohydrates 
42 per cent. ; and the albuminoids 53 per cent. 

The NITROGEN required for one day would be supplied by — 



I, Clieese, Gloucester • - • . 


2. Dry peas 


3 '3 

3. Pure lean of beef 



4. Oatmeal, Scotch 



5. Eggs, mixed yolks and whites 



6. Wh eaten flour 



7. Bacon 


5 3 

8. Rice, cleaned 



9. Wheaten bread 



10. Cows' milk 



II. Potatoes 



12. White turnips 

• 54 


CARBON required for one day would b 

e suppHed t 



I. Bacon 


2. Scotch oatmeal .... 


3. Cheese, Gloucester 


4. Rice, cleaned .... 


5. Wheaten flour . * - . 


6. Dry peas 


7. Wheaten bread .... 



8. Eggs, mixed yolks and whites • 



9. Pure lean of beef - - - • . 



10. Potatoes 



II. Cows' milk - - ' . 



12. White turnips ► . . - 

- 40 



A glance at the preceding tables will show that no one article 
of food taken alone can furnish the exact quantities, both of 
nitrogen and of carbon, requisite for the day's nourishment ; oat- 
meal, however, occupies nearly the same position in both tables. 
Potatoes, on the other hand, are so deficient in available nitrogen 
that 2^ times the weight of these tubers necessary to furnish the 
requisite quantity of carbon must be eaten in order that the 
former element may be taken in sufficient amount. To bring out 
the full meaning of the preceding table it should be studied in 
connection with the tables of dynamic values previously given. 

But there is another method, at once easier and more exacl^ 
for the construction and control of a daily ration. Instead of 
determining the available nitrogen and carbon we concern our- 
selves with the albuminoids on the one hand, and, on the other, 
with the starch and other digestible carbohydrates, to which we 
add the starch-equivalent of any oil or fat present. Now this 
nutrient-ratio has been ascertained for a large number of food- 
stuffs, and also for many dietaries specially adapted for bare 
sustenance, moderate work, hard work, and very hard work ; also 
for persons of both sexes and different ages, as well as for 
variations in the external conditions of life. We shall consider 
these dietaries in the next section, confining ourselves in this 
place to the one standard dietary given on page 52, and to the 
way in which it may be constructed from a few of the food- 
stuffs in common use. It should, however, be stated that in 
order to secure a perfectly wholesome ration, suitable for continued 
use, a portion of the starch or other carbohydrates should always 
be replaced by its equivalent in oil or fat — this is particularly 
necessary in strenuous labour and in cold climates, and has the 
advantage of reducing the bulk of the food as well as of bringing 
into action certain digestive and absorptive processes which would 
otherwise be unemployed. 

Standard rations have been constructed not merely by analys- 
ing the best of tbo,9« m actual use, but also synthetically. The 



quantity and composition of the daily food have been varied until 
the body-weight suffered neither loss nor gain, while at the same 
time health was fully maintained and the required work properly 
performed. The nutrient-ratio generally adopted for the standard 
diet is I : 4j^. The proportion of fat or oil to starch and other 
carbohydrates may vary a good deal, but i of fat to 3}^ of starch 
is found satisfactory. 

Before proceeding further with the discussion of this nutrient- 
ratio, it will be convenient at once to state that many of the data 
upon which the nutrient-ratios of food-stuffs and dietaries depend 
are not quite exactly determined in three respects: (i) as to the 
proportion of digestible matter (albuminoids mainly) in some of 
the food-stuffs; (2) as to the proportion of true albuminoids 
present in some of the food-stuffs (animal products mainly) ; and 
(3) as to the accuracy of some of the older analyses of standard 
dietaries. These probable sources of error in a measure correct 
one another, but are too complex to be more than mentioned in 
an elementary handbook. 

Having fixed upon a normal or standard nutrient-ratio, the 
first step we take is to see how far it is realised by the most 
important food-stuffs. The following table gives the nutrient- 
ratio in a number of vegetable and a few animal food-stuffs : — 










It will be seen at once that the great majority of the foods 
named in the table show a wide divergence from the standard 

Foods. »'~i™'- 


I. Calves' liver - - I ; 



Flour - 

2. Eggs- - - . I ! 



Maize- ^ • 

3. Gloucester cheese • i i 



Filberts ' - 

4. Peas - ... I 



Cleaned rice 

5. Milk- ... I 



Dried figs - 

6. Cabbage - - • i 



Pearl barley 

7. Vegetable marrow • I ! 




8. Ground-nuts - • I ! 




9. Scotch oatmeal - • i ' 

: 5J 



10. Turnips - • - i 

: 6 



II. Walnuts • - - I 



Beet-root - 


nutrient-ratio. Lean meats of various animals have not been 
included in our list because our information as to the true albumi- 
noids in them is meagre, much of the nitrogenous matter in them 
belonging to the group of osseids. By associating them with 
some of the starchy and saccharine foods (Nos. lo to 19), there 
is, however, no doubt that the excess of non-albuminoid matter 
in these may be corrected. In like manner peas and other pulse, 
with the nutrient-ratio i : 2j^, may be taken along with the 
cereals (wheat, maize, rice, barley) having a nutrient-ratio of 
I : 73^ to I : 10, and the deficiencies of both classes of food 
supplied. The small quantity of oil or fat present in the mixture 
may be supplemented by the addition of fat bacon, butter, oil, 
etc. A very convenient way of constructing a compound standard 
ration is to prepare two tables, in one of which all the food-stuffs 
having an excess of albuminoids are included, in the other all the 
food-stufirs having an excess of starch or of its equivalent in fat. 
These tables give the amounts in ounces and decimals of an 
ounce of the albuminoids, and of the starch or of the fat, 
present in an ounce, two ounces, three ounces, and so on up 
to nine ounces, in the several food products. Examples quoted 
from two such tables are — 

KICE. I oz. 2 oz. 3 oz. 4 oz. 5 oz. 6 oz. 7 oz. 8 oz. 90Z. 

Albuminoids '073 '146 '219 '292 -365 -438 '511 '584 '657 
Starch - • 793 1-594 2-391 3-188 3-985 4-7S2 5-579 6-376 7-173 


Albuminoids -236 '472 708 '944 I'iSo 1-416 1-652 1-888 2*124 
Starch - - -575 1-150 1-725 2*300 2-875 3*45o 4'0-2S 4'6oo 5-175 


Albuminoids '190 '380 -570 -760 -950 1*140 1*330 1*520 1-710 
Fat - - - -090 'iSo '270 -360 -450 -540 -630 -720 'Sio 


Albuminoids -081 -162 '243 '324 '405 '486 '567 '648 729 
Fat - - - -652 1-304 1-956 2608 3*260 3*912 4-564 5 '2 16 5*868 

Let US suppose that we have to construct a daily ration from 
rice, peas, bacon, and mutton. We must keep the pulse rather 



low in quantity, since its nutrients are imperfectly utilised when 
it forms a large proportion of the day's food. The bacon we 
introduce mainly to supply the required fat or oil, the mutton 
will supply a large amount of albuminoid or at least of nitrogenous 
matter. If we arrange the proportions and amounts of the 
several nutrients so that the nutrient-ratio required is realised, 
and at the same time the necessary quantity of nutrients is 
supplied, then we may be sure that the dynamic value (in foot- 
tons) of the proposed ration will be sufficient. The calculation 
may be thus set down : — 

O2. of Albuminoids. Oz. of Starch. Oz. of Fat. 

Rice, \o% oz. furnish - 766 ... S328 ... — 

Peas, 6 oz. furnish - • 1*416 ... 3 450 ... — 

MuUon, 10 oz. furnish - i-900 ... — ... '900 

Bacon, 4 02. furnish • '324 ... — .. 2'6o5 

Totals - 4-406 ... 1 1 778 .^ 3-505 

Required 4250 ... 1 1-410 ... 3770 

There is a sufficient agreement between the two sets of 
quantities; and in reality it is closer than it appears. The 
slight excess of albuminoids, which seems to be supplied by 
these four food-stuffs, is due to reckoning all the nitrogen of the 
mutton and bacon as if it existed in the albuminoid form : the 
excess of starch arises from our having included under that 
heading the starch-equivalent of the small quantity of oil in the 
rice and the peas ; and in the same way the deficiency (of 0*265 
of an ounce) in the fat is really balanced, in great measure, by 
the vegetable oil just named. But the caution we have given ^ 
before must not be forgotten. We must bear in mind that, 
while a part of each nutrient always remains unused, this pro- 
portion IS largest in the case of the albuminoids. So in all 
standard dietaries, the amounts of albuminoids required and the 
amounts furnished by any series of associated food-stuffs, are 
always exaggerated. In very few cases, however, have we the 
data for correcting the figures ; we know that in some instances 



one-fourth of the total should be deducted. It is evident that 
such corrections will seriously modify both the theoretical ai?/d 
the actual nutrient-ratios. 

§ 2. — Official and other Dietaries. 

In calculating the total amount of nutrients required per 
24 hours for an adult, and the most desirable nutrient-ratio, there 
are three conditions which have to be more particularly con- 
sidered. These are (i) the body-weight ; (2) the amount of work 
required to be done ; (3) the climate, or rather, the temperature 
of the air. Of these conditions, i and 2 are the chief. Most 
European standard dietaries have been constructed for the suste- 
nance of individuals weighing from 1401b. to 1541b., and the 
amount of work these individuals have been supposed able to 
perform is nearly proportional to such weight. The work of an 
average European labourer, weighing 150 lb., corresponds to 
about 300 foot-tons — 300 tons lifted one foot A very hard day's 
work equals 400 foot-tons. Natives of India, weighing, say, 115 lb., 
can and do perform an amount of daily work equal to 230 foot- 
tons; if their weight be 105 lb. only, they accomplish work equal 
to 215 foot-tons. When the famous pedestrian, Weston, was 
walking his 50 miles a day on level ground, he did external work 
which Mr. Wynter Blyth calculated at 793 foot-tons. The 
following table shows in ounces and decimals of an ounce the 
approximate amounts of the several chief nutrients which are 
demanded per diem under the above-named circumstances : — 

A. European labourer of 150 lb., \ 

doing fairly hard work - 
ist Indian of 105 ! 
fairly hard work - 

B. East Indian of 105 lb., doing | 



Starch, etc. 

4'^ ... 


... 14-4 

3'6 ... 



7*9 .. 



C. Pedestrian, walking 50 miles ") 
a day - - - - - i 

The nutrient-ratio in A is i : 5*1 ; in B, i : 4*7 ^ i^^ Q i : 4'2. 
In C it would be an improvement, where individual liking allowed 


it, had the starch been reduced by 4-6 oz. and the fat increased 
by 2 oz., the equivalent of the starch withdrawn. It may be 
added here that the daily allowance of water in food and drink, 
during very hard work, such as that in C above, must be greatly 
increased. Weston took 135 oz. 

In general it will be found that the dietaries of the army and 
navy, as well as those of hospitals, prisons, and workhouses, 
correspond fairly well with the amount and character of the work 
demanded from the persons concerned. Thus, in various 
European armies and navies, the rations furnish from 3 J^ oz. to 
6 oz. of albuminoids per day, the amount being raised during 
warfa^^ and manoeuvres. The chief defects of several of such 
dietaries, namely their monotony, the limited supply of fresh 
vegetables, and an occasional deficiency of fat and of albuminoids, 
are being remedied by the application of scientific knowledge. 

When the sailor or soldier retires from active work he natu- 
rally requires less amounts of flesh-forming and heat-giving 
nutrients in his food. It is found, however, that the carbon 
actually consumed is but little lower under these circumstances. 
Paupers in workhouses, of whom but little labour is expected, 
require less flesh-formers and carbon than active soldiers and 
sailors and artisans. Boys 10 years of age, at school, receive 
about half the flesh-formers (27 oz.) required by active men, and 
about three-fourths (10 oz.) the quantity of starch and fat. Ladies 
in luxurious repose consume about the same amount as young 
schoolboys. It must always be remembered that flesh-formers can 
be, and constantly are, used in the human body as force-pro- 
ducers ; but, on the other hand, the heat-givers or force-producers 
(starch, sugar, and fat) cannot be applied to the formation of the 
nitrogenous matter of flesh. 

It will be instructive to give the details of a few other dietaries 
in a somewhat different and more extended form. In the table 
which follows, we show the amounts of flesh-formers and of the 
two chief groups of heat-givers in eight dietaries of widely dif- 


ferent characters. No great degree of accuracy is attainable in 
such tables, but the figures we have adopted will be found near 
enough to the truth for our present purpose. It may be repeated 
here that it requires about 4 oz. 150 gr. of albuminoids to furnish 
300 gr. of nitrogen. 

The daily rations of some official and some special dietaries 
vill contain about the following quantities of — 

r,,^^ Albuminoids. Fat. <:3^1V'\. ^'"f*' 

Diet. bugar, eta matter. 

oz. oz. oz. oz. 

Prisoners' punishment V ^.^ «.,^: o.« 

(=1 lb. bread) -I '^ ••. 0^6 ... 82 ... 04 

Prisoners for seven days \ 

(=1 lb. bread and >- i*8 ... o*'5 ... 107 ... o-6 

X lb. oatmeal) - ) 

Subsistence or famine - 
Prisoners' light labour - 
Prisoners' hard labour - 
Healthy adults with \ 

moderate exercise - j 
Hard-working artisans 
Navvies, blacksmiths, \ 

and others working r 

very hard • - -^ 

The above numbers illustrate the necessity for largely-increased 
quantities of nitrogenous compounds or flesh-formers when really 
heavy work has to be done. Practical experience points unmis- 
takably to this conclusion, but it is not yet clearly ascertained in 
what way these greater quantities and higher proportions of nitro- 
genous matter are utilised in the body. As the albuminoids may 
perform many functions, we are at a loss to know upon which of 
these functions there is the most decisive call during hard bodily 
labour. The notion that the nitrogenous constituents of muscle 
are extensively consumed during hard work is inexact ; but it is 
probable that the non-nitrogenous heat-givers and force-producers 
cannot do their work fully unless there be a commensurate 
increase in the amount of flesh-formers which accompany them. 

We have not space to discuss the dietaries of children and 

2 '3 

• • • 



II -6 



• « • 




• • . 



• • • 


• • a 


• • . 



• • • 

I '4 

• • t 


* . • 



« « • 

2 "9 

• • • 





• •« 


• •• 

20 '4 




invalids, and of athletes in training, although these subjects are 
important and interesting, particularly through the light which 
they derive from chemical and physiological investigations. 
Attempts have been made to prepare foods suitable for infants 
from the common bread-stuffs by converting much of their starch 
into dextrin and glucose. This has been done by heat or by the 
action of malt. Still, there is often a deficiency of fat and very 
much starch in substitutes for mothers' milk. 

That many of the preparations sold under various names for 
infants' food do not fulfil the primary condition of appropriateness, 
so far as comparative freedom from starch is concerned, is shown 
by the following analyses of six kinds prepared by different makers 
whose names I suppress. Of these six foods the first only can be 
recommended : — 

Analyses of Six Foods for Infants, 










• • • 


12-4 ... 

79 ... 


... 12-8 

Albuminoids, etc. 



127 ... 

I2'0 . 


... ll'O 




57-2 ... 

68-3 .. 

71 '5 

... 69-4 

Dextrin and sugar 


• • • 


8-3 ... 

8-4 ... 


... 4*4 

Fat - 

5 5 

• •• 


31 ... 

17 ... 


... I'D 

Cellulose - 


■ •• 


0-9 ... 

07 ... 


... 06 

Mineral matter • 




5-4 ... 

1*0 ... 


... 0-8 

Phosphoric acid - 


• • • 



(0-38) .. 


... (036) 

Common salt 


• • ■ 



^■^ •• • 


... — 

The nutrient-ratio of these preparations is fairly constant: in 
No. I. it is I : 7 "S, a figure not far removed from that of human 
milk, which is about i : 9. 

In the dietaries considered suitable for invalids, attempts have 
been made to devise food-preparations from which certain nutrients 
are wholly excluded. For diabetic patients gluten bread, gluten 
biscuits, gluten macaroni, bran biscuits, as well as cakes made 
with sweet almonds and eggs, are prepared. From such pre- 
parations both starch and sugar are supposed to be absent. But 
the above-named gluten preparations, however well made, always 


contain some starch; gluten macaroni and bran biscuits a good deal. 
Amongst other allowable vegetable products, turnips and boiled 
celery, Irish moss and other seaweeds, walnuts and pistachio-nuts, 
may be named. Fluid extract of meat is another article which is 
capable of being used in conjunction with the above vegetable 
preparations so as to complete the dietary of a day. This extract 
must not be confused with Liebig's Extract, which is a stimulant 
and restorative, not a nutrient or substantive food. The fluid 
extract of meat contains all the constituents of lean meat in a 
soluble condition : indeed, an artificial process of digestion has 
been already accomplished before the material is consumed as 
food. Although milk is forbidden, cream, butter, and cheese, as 
well as all kinds of meat, poultry, game, and fish, and shell-fish are 
permitted to diabetic patients. Eggs are also allowable. 

§ 3. — National Foods. 

It must not be imagined that the vegetable or animal products 
which are used as the staple articles of food in different countries 
are in all instances perfectly adapted to the needs of the in- 
habitants. Some at least of the national foods and dietaries 
are too bulky, and thus lead to an excessive distension of the 
stomach and abdominal viscera. Such a result may ensue, if 
twice, thrice, or four limes as much as is necessary of the other 
nutrients has to be eaten in order to provide the requisite quantity 
of flesh-formers. But we may often trace several elements at 
work in the construction of national dietaries. Besides the local 
peculiarities of the vegetable and animal foods which are most 
abundant and attainable, we have the influence of those instinctive 
appetites for particular articles of food, which certainly exist 
however difficult of explanation they may be. Religious or super- 
stitious usages are also most important factors in the result in 
many instances, although they will not always serve to explain the 
abstention from certain perfectly wholesome and nutritious foods, 


or the consumption of absolutely noxious or of nearly useless 
materials like clay. But this aspect of the subject before us, 
though interesting as a study, could not be discussed without 
entering into very voluminous details as to the curiosities of food. 
We may, however, give a few illustrative examples of national 
foods, citing especially those which are in common use in India, 
China, Japan, and Siam. 

Indian Foods. Rice ; various kinds of millet ; numerous 
varieties of pulse ; wheat ; many fresh vegetables and fruits ; milk, 
butter, and cheese; oil; with a not inconsiderable number of fresh 
and dried animal foods, constitute the chief food-staples of India. 
So far as rice, millet, pulse, and other dry food grains are con- 
cerned, the subject has been fully treated in my "Food Grains of 
India." As to other materials analytical data are still very imper- 
fect. The fruits and fresh vegetables doubtless are useful in 
supplying, besides sugar and oil, certain organic acids, as malic, 
citric, and tartaric, as well as mineral nutrients, notably phos- 
phoric acid and potash. Other saline compounds, such as nitrates, 
also exist in some of these vegetable products and are not withoul 
dietetic value. Rice, the great food-staple of a large part of 
India, has some of its deficiencies supplied in this way, others by 
the use of numerous condiments, spices, and flavourers, and by 
the employment of a fair proportion of pulse and of clarified 
butter or of vegetable oil. The millets are foods presenting 
generally a better nutrient-ratio, with more oil and mineral matter 
than rice. To buckwheat, to the seed of Chenopcdiutn albmn^ as 
well as to the grain of Coix gigantea^ the same remark applies. 
Amongst the chief pulses raised and consumed in India may be 
named the following: Guar-beans {Cyamopsis pso7'aIioides) ; Pea- 
nuts {Arac/iis hypogced) ; Chick-peas {Cicer arietium and C, 
soongai iami) 'y Peas {Pisum sativum)) Lentils {Lens esculenta)\ 
Soy-beans (G'/>'t7«(?^^"tz); Mung-beans {F/iaseoIus Mungo), Catiang- 
beans (Fig/ia Catiang)) Lablab- Deans {DoHchos Lablab)\ Pigeon- 
peas {Cajanus indicus), 



Amongst tne curiosities of Indian foods we may name the 
corollas of Bassia latifolia^ known as Mahua flowers. These, in 
their usual air-dried state, are remarkable for containing more 
than half their weight of sugar. In some parts of India these 
tree-blossoms form a really important article of food ; a single tree 
of fair size yields from 200 to 400 pounds of the fresh corollas. 
An analysis showed them to contain, when air-dried, the follow- 
ing percentages: Water, i5'o; Albuminoids, 2-2; Cane-sugar, 
3*2; Grape-sugar, 52-6; Cellulose, 2*4; and Mineral matter, 4*8. 

Chinese Foods, These include wines and spirits, oils, con- 
fectionery, preserved fruits and vegetables, dried fruits and 
grains, bamboo shoots preserved, cinnamon and cassia buds, 
tobacco, teas and flowers for scenting them, brick-tea, gelatinous 
substances, condiments and spices ; nor must we omit pipes for 
tobacco and opium smoking, chopsticks, etc. Amongst these 
products may be noted soy and an oil prepared from the soy-bean ; 
tea seed oil ', cakes not unlike some of those made by European 
confectioners ; various preserved fruits and vegetables in sealed 
canisters — for in the art of thus preserving such perishable pro- 
ducts, the Chinese have long been skilful. The Chinese preserve 
some of their fruits, roots, flowers, etc., in brine or salt ; some in 
treacle, and some in sugar. Arrowroot is largely made from the 
root of a water-lily in China, in the Tae-hoo lake districts. Amongst 
other Chinese foods, we may name several kinds of sea-weed, fish- 
maws, trepang, beche-de-mer^ sharks' fins, and edible birds'-nests. 

Japanese Foods. — Amongst these, rice, of which numerous 
varieties are in general cultivation, must be regarded as the most 
important. Although barley and the millets form the chief food 
of the Japanese mountaineers, rice is the staple food of the 
dwellers in the plains. It appears that both swamp-rice and 
mountain-rice, when grown in Japan, contain a higher per- 
centage of albuminoids than is usual with this grain. Glutinous 
rice is a remarkable variety, the starch of which does not strike 
a blue colour with iodine Fanicum crus-galU^ F, frumentaceum^ 


P, miliaceum^ Setaria italica^ Eleusine coracana^ and Sorghum vul* 
gare^ are the chief millets cultivated in Japan. Wheat and maize 
are also grown. Besides common barley, the naked-grain variety 
is met with. Buckwheat is another starchy food which may be 
named here. Various kinds of pulse form a very important food- 
staple in Japan. Of these the soy-bean {Glycine hispida\ of 
which several varieties occur, is the chief. The seeds of this 
plant often contain no less than 37 per cent, of albuminoids, 
along with as much as 15 to 20 per cent, of oil or fat; soy- 
beans nearly approach the composition of an ideal food. Other 
legumes grown to a considerable extent in Japan are, Phaseolus 
radiaiuSy Ph. vuigaris^ Pisum sativum^ Vigna Caiiafig, Canavalia 
ensiformis^ Lens esculenia^ Lupinus fiavus^ Arachis hypogcea^ and 
several species of Dolichos. Bulbs, rhizomes, and tubers of many 
kinds, both indigenous and introduced, are largely consumed as 
food in Japan. The rhizomes of the lotus {Nelumbium speciosuni) 
and of the arrow-head {Sagittaria sag{tlcEfoUa\ the tubers and 
bulbs of the sweet potato (Convolvulus Baiatas\ of several species 
of Colocasia and Arum^ and of Dioscorea^ are largely grown. The 
bulbs of the beautiful golden-rayed lily {Liitiim auratum) are some- 
times eaten by the poorer people. The giant radish {Raphanus 
sativus) is used in a great variety of ways, especially with rice. 
Favourite vegetables are many kinds of melon, pumpkin, and gourd. 
A few fungi are eaten, but sea-weeds are consumed in immense 
quantities, and are also largely exported. Sea-weed jelly, or Agar- 
agar (in Japanese, Fu-nori), is prepared from many different species 
of marine algse to a great extent. It contains much mucilage, 
together with a large but variable amount of albuminoid matter. 
Fruits of many kinds, some indigenous, some introduced from 
Europe and from India, are much consumed in Japan, but, with 
few exceptions, they are of inferior character. Of animal foods, 
fish, much of it dried, is very popular. Considerable quantities of 
other m?jine animals are also eaten ; they are also exported, after 
having been diied, to China. Amoiig tliese may be named, sea- 


slugs (Holothuria edulis\ Hoshi-awabi {Haliotis gtganfea and 
If. japonica), crabs, shrimps ; dried sharks* fins are also exported. 
A. few observations on Japanese tea will be found on p. 214 ; as to 
tobacco, it may be said that it became rapidly popular very soon 
after the first introduction of the plant into the country. Tobacco 
smoking is now general. A small quantity of tobacco is exported 
to Great Britain. 

Siamese Foods. Amongst these may be named various beans 
and seeds, ground-nuts, betel-nuts, sugars, tobaccos, spices, dried 
fish, dried meat, fish-maws, edible birds'-nests, sea-slugs, sharks' 
fins, and deer sinews. 

Siam produces a variety of fruits and vegetables, the great 
majority of which have not been examined chemically — many of 
them have not, indeed, been as yet botanically identified. They 
include, however, a large number of familiar fruits, such as the 
mango, rose-apple, litchi, jak-fruit, durian, tamarind, plantain, 
pumpkin, orange, lemon, jujube, etc. etc. 

Maori Foods. An idea of the foods in use among the New 
Zealand aborigines may be gained from the following list of 
different kinds which were presented, in neatly woven baskets, 
before Sir George Grey's tent on the occasion of a Maori feast in 

Pohua; roots of Convolvulus sepium. They were slightly 
bitter, and resembled floury potatoes. 

Para ; scales from the root-stock of the grand fern, Marattia 
fraxiiiea. These were pinkish, rather tough, with a slightly bitter 

Marnaku ; junks, one foot long, of the mucilaginous pith of 
the great black tree-fern, Cyathea medullaris. These were soft 
and sweet when boiled or baked. 

Roi ; rhizomes of the brake, Pkris aquilina^ var. esculenta. 

Tawha; prepared berries of a common forest tree, the 
Nesodaphne tawha. 

Hakeke ; Jews' ear fungus, Hirtieola auricula-judcB, 


So^VTHISTLE; Sonchus oleraceus. This, when cooked, affords 
a substantial food. 

The subject of national foods would obviously require, for its 
adequate discussion, a volume of no inconsiderable size. There 
are many points which are not yet cleared up, and the data, 
although abundant, are by no means complete. Several topics of 
great interest would have to be considered in the light of chemical 
and physiological knowledge. It is strange to find, for example, 
that a part of a single nation or race lives on food entirely dif- 
ferent from that of another part The Arabs of the desert live 
on the flesh and milk of the camel. But where the date-palm 
flourishes the fruit of this tree affords the chief sustenance to the 
Arab. The French and Spanish peasants live chiefly on vegetable 
food, eating but little meat ; they consume, however, large quan- 
tities of oil. The Eskimo and North American Indians use 
animal fat to a very great extent ; they rarely, if ever, have the 
chance of touching vegetable foods, and consequently starch 
cannot be reckoned amongst the nutrients which support their 

§ 4. — Ancient Foods. 

The tombs of Egypt have furnished us with specimens ot 
grain and other products consumed as food by the ancient in- 
habitants. Olive oil has been found still liquid in a vase carefully 
closed up, wliich was recently discovered at Thebes ; but the 
statement as to wheat from a mummy case having germinated is 
not authenticated. The best insight into the food of Roman 
towns and times is furnished by the wonderful series of vegetable 
products discovered from time to time at Pompeii, and now for 
the most part preserved in the National Museum at Naples. This 
collection includes even loaves of bread, blackened by the separa- 
tion of their carbon, yet still retaining their shape, and inscribed 
with details of their manufacture. Were such tangible evidence 
of the nature of ancient Roman food wanting, we should still be 


able to obtain some acquaintance with the subject from the descrip 
tive writings which are extant, and from the pictorial representa 
tions of articles of food which remain on the walls of the Pompeian 
houses. But even in England we find relics of Romano-British 
food in the bones of the pig, and in the oyster, mussel, and snail 
shells which abound near our Roman stations. Similar evidence 
with regard to other ancient European peoples is afforded by the 
waste heaps or kitchen-middens so abundant in some parts of the 
Continent, in the debris of bones discovered during recent years 
in many caves once inhabited by man, and in the lake-dwellings 
of Switzerland, Savoy, and Denmark. In these last instances the 
evidence of the use of many fruits and grains has been furnished 
by the perfect preservation of these substances. Fish-hooks 
have also been found, together with other proofs of the use of 
animal foods. One of the most productive of all the Swiss lakes 
is that of Pfaffikon, in the canton of Zurich. Here remains of 
many kinds of food were disinterred from the peat of the lake- 
dwellings of Robenhausen. These lake-dwellings were built on 
piles, covered above with planking. In the case of some of these 
structures, no evidence of the use of metals by their builders has 
been detected ; they belong to a stone age, locally anterior to 
those of bronze and iron. The food remains of these very early 
inhabitants of Europe are of hi^h interest. 




Acetic acid • , . 

191, 212 

Bananas. • • «, 

. 135 

Acids . . . , 

10, 210 

Barley . • , , 

. 86 

Adulteration of bread 

■ 79 

Bearberry . , . 

. 129 

Aerated bread 

. 76 

Beef . . . . 

. 167 

Albumen . 6, lo, 4 

3, 50, 160 

Beet root 

. 104 

,, in human body . 

. 5 


. 129 

Albuminoids . 

. 42 

Birds' nests, edible . 

. 172 

„ digestion of. 

. 44 

Biscuits . . . , 

. 82 

„ uses of 

10, 48 

Bitter-almond oil . 

. 141 


. 44 


. 129 

Alcohol . . . ic 

», 185, 193 

Black currants 

. 128 

„ in beer 

. 190 

Blocked barley , 

. 86 

„ in bread , , 

. 74 

Blood . . . . 

. 170 

,f in spirits . • 

. 195 

Bones . 

. 166 

„ in wine . , 

. 192 

Borage . . . , 

. 120 

Allspice . . , « 

. 207 

Bosnian plums . 

. 131 



Bran . . . . 

> 72, 77 

Amides . 

. IOC 

>, 103, 105 

Brandy . , , 

. 197 


. 207 

Brazil nuts 

. 144 

Animal foods . 

. 145 


. 73 


. 204 

,, adulterants of 

. 79 

Apple oil 

. 209 

„ aerated . 

. 76 

Apples . 

. 126 

,, brown . 

. 76 


. 132 

„ fermented 

. 74 


. 29 

„ fruit 

. 138 

Ajtichokes, English 

. 112 

„ substitutes 

. 80 

„ Jerusalem 

. 105 

,, unfermented . 

. 75 


. 112 

,, wheat-meal . 

. 77 

Asses' milk . 

. 149 

,, whole-meal , 

. 77 

Australian meats , 

. 182 

Brewing , 

. 187 

,, wheat , 

t . 64 


. 92 

Bummeloh fish 

. 174 

Bacon . 

. 178 


. 194 

Baking powd€ 


. 75 

Burnet . , 

. 120 






Butchers' meat . . .165 

Clark's process 

. 22 

Butter .... 

. 153 

Cleaned rice . 

. 89 

„ adulteration of 


Cloves .... 
Coarse dust , , 

. 206 

Cabbage . , , 


Coca . . • ," 

. 220 

Calves' liver , 


Cocoa . . • . 

. 217 

Candle-nuts . 


Coco-nut . • 

. 142 

Cane-sugar . 


,9 double , , 

. 144 

Capers . . 


Coffee . . . . 

. 216 



Compounds . . , 

. 4 



Condensed milk • , 

• 151 

Carbon in dail 

y fooc 


. 57 

, 231 

Condiments . , , 

. 201 

Cardamoms , 


Conger eels . 

. 174 



Coniferin . . , 

. 209 


. 194 

Consumption of spirits • 

. 200 

Carob beans . 


Cooking. . . , 

. 163 

Carrots . 



. 207 


. 46 

Corn .... 

61, 90 

Casein . 


Com flour , , 

• 91 

Cassava . 


Cost of food . , , 

. 230 

Cassia . 

. 206 

Crabs . . . 

. 177 

Caviare , 

. 176 

Cranberries . , 

. 129 

Celery . 

. 121 

Cream , . . , 

. 149 

Cellulose , 

. 39 

Cress . • , , 

. 120 

Cerealin. , 

. 73 

Cucumbers • , 

. 123 

Cereals . , 

. 61 

Cumin . . . . 

. 204 

Chamaerops . 


Currants, black, red, and 

white 128 

Champagne , 


„ dried , 

. 128 

Cheese . 

. 156 

Cherries . 

. 130 

Daily food 

51. 231 

Chervil . 

. 108 

„ supply . 

57, 234 


. 138 

„ waste . , . 

. 58 

Chick peas 

. 95 

Dairy produce , » 

. 145 

Chicory . 


, 216 

Dari . , . , 

. 92 

Chillies . 

, 202 

Dates . . , , 

• 134 

Chinese foods. 


Deep-well water . 

. 17 

„ opiuff 

. 224 

Dextrin . . , , 

. 30 

Chives . 

. 205 

Diastase , . , . 

30, 188 


. 109 

Diet .... 

51, 226 


. 46 

Dietaries, official , 

. 236 


. 46 

„ special . 

. 238 

Cider . 

. 195 

Digestion of albuminoids. 

• 47 


. 206 

„ meat . 

. 164 

Citiic acid 

. 211 

» oil 

■ 37 

Citrons . 

• 137 

», starch . , 

• 30 

Claret . 

• 194 

M sugar . , 

• 33 






Dika bread . . 

. 143 

Garlic . . . 

• . 106 

DUl . . . 

» . 204 

Gin . . . , 

. 197 

Distilled water 

. 24 

Gloucester cheese . 

. 158 

Dwarf palm . . 

. 109 

Gluten . . . , 

. 65, 73 

Glycerides • 

. 36 

Glycerin . , 

. 194 

Eggs . . • 

. 159 

Goats' milk . 

. 149 

Elastin . . • 

. 47 

Gooseberries . . 

. 128 

Elderberries . 

. 129 
. 6 

Grapes . . , . 
Ground nuts . • , 

. 129 
. 98 

„ in human bo< 

iy. . 7 

Gum , 

1 * -y^ 

. . 38 

Endive ... 

. 120 

Eschalote . • 

. 177 

. 205 

Haemoglobin . 

. 45 
. 96 

Ethers in wine • 

. 192 

Heat and work 


. 41 

Heat-givers . 

. 28 

Fat ... 

. 35 


. 174 

„ in foods . 

. 36, 162 

Hickory nuts . . , 

. 142 

,, in human body . 

. 4 

Hock . . . . 

• 194 


. 114 

Honey . . . , 

• 34 

Fibrin . 

. 44 

Hops . . . . 

. 188 


. 133 

Human body, compositio 

n of . 5 

Filberts . 

. 140 

Filters . 

. 20 

Iceland moss . . • 

. 116 

Fine dust 

. 86 

Indian com . 

. 90 


. 173 

„ foods . 

. 241 


. 207 

„ opium . 

. 224 

Flesh-formers . 

. 42 

„ pulse . 

. 98 

Food adjuncts 

. 10, 185 

,, wheat . 

. 64 

„ ancient . 

. 245 

Inosite . . . . 

. 34 

„ and fuel compare 

d . I, 227 

Inulin . . . . 

29, 105 

„ as force-producer 


Irish moss . . 

. 118 

,, Chinese. 

. 242 

,, oatmeal . 

. 84 

„ classification . 

. 9 

Isinglass. . , 

• 45 

,, Indian . 

. 241 

,, Japanese 

. 242 

Jaggaiy . . . . 

• 32 

„ Maori . 

. 244 

Jak fruit. 

. 138 

„ national . . 

. 240 

Japanese foods • , 

. 242 

,, Siamese. 

• 244 

„ tea . 

. 214 

,, uses of . 


French beans . 

. . 96 

Koumiss. . • , 

• 149 

Frogs . 

. 173 


. 209 

Lactic acid . , 

. 146 

Fruits . 

. 124 

Lead in water. • 

• 15 

Fimgi . 

. 114 

Leaven . 

. 74 

Fur in kettles . 

. 12 

Leeks . . . . 

. Ill 






44. 94 

Neroli .... 

• 137 

Lemon oil » 

. 208 

Nitrogen in daily food 

. 231 

Lemons . 


Nitrogenous matter. . 42 

, 167 

Lentils . 



. 206 

Lettuce . 


Nutrient-ratio . 

. 60 



Nutrient -value 


Limes . 

. 137 

Nutrients . , 

■ 9 





. 35 ■ 

Oatmeal, Irish 

. 84 

Liver, calves* . 


,, Scotch 

. 84 

London water supply , 

. 24 

Oats .... 

. 83 

Oil and fat in foods. 

. 36 

Macaroni .... 


Oils and fats . 

• 35 




Olives .... 

• 37 


1 1 


Onions .... 

. 106 

Madeira . 


Opium, Chinese 


Mahua flowers 

• 3 

3, 35 

„ , Indian 


Maize . 




Malic acid 




Malt . 

. 86 

Organic matter in water . 


Maltose . 



Osseids . . . , . 


Mannite . 

. 35 



Maple sugar . 


„ in human body 


Mares' milk . 






Oxalic acid . , , . 


Meat . 




„ fluid extract of 


„ Liebig's extract of . 


, 210 



Medlars .... 


Pale ale 





Palm-nuts . . , . 


MUk . . . , 



Parsnips. . . , . 


„ adulteration of 


Pates d'ltalie . . . . 


Millet . . . . 


Paupers' diet . . . . 


Mill-products of wheat . 




Mineral matter of food . 


Pea-nuts . . . . 


,, nutrients . 


Pearl barley . . . . 




,, dust . . . . 






Mucin . 


,, essence of . . . 






Mushrooms . 




Mustard . 

. 201 

Pepper . . . . . 


Mutton , 

. 165, 167 

Peppermint , , , . 
Pepsin . , . . . 


National foods 

. 240 

Peptones . « . . 


Navy biscuits . 

. 83 



Pigs' milk • 


Pistachio-nuts . 

Phosphate of lime in food 


Pollard . 




Porter . 

Potash salts in food 

Potatoes . 

Potato starch 


Poultry and game 

Preserved meats 

,, milk 
Prickly pear . 
Prisoners' diet 
Proof spirit 
Ptyalin . 
Public dietaries 
Pulse . 

Radish . 
Rain-water , 
Raisins . 
Raspberries . 
Rations . 
Red currants . 
Rennet . 
Residues of water 

River-water . 
Roots and tubers 

Saffron . 



Salads . • 





. H9 

Salep . . . , .29 


Salmon . . . . 174, 176 


Salt 26 


,, in water .... 



Salts in food .... 



Samphire .... 


. 138 

Sapucaia-nuts . 






Scotch barley .... 






Semolina ... 6 



Sewage-pollution of water 



Shaddock .... 





. 170 




Sheep's milk .... 



Sherry .... 

. 194 


Shochu .... 

. 199 


Siamese foods 

. 244 

1 86 

Skim milk .... 



Soap wasted by hard water 



Softening water 



Soldiers* diet . 

. 237 


Soles .... 

. 174 

Sorrel .... 



Soy beans 

. 99 





Spinach .... 

. Ill 


Spirits .... 

. 195 


. 234 

Spring-water . 

. 8 


Stachys .... 

. 108 



Starch .... 

. 28 


„ in foods 

. 29 

. 132 
. 88 

Strawberries . 

. 128 

Succory .... 

. 12a 

• 15 

. 66 

Sugar .... 

• 31 

;, beet . 

. 31 


„ cane 

• 31 

■ 199 

. 87 

„ grape . 
,, malt 

• 34 

• 33 

*" ~ 

„ milk ... 35 

, 146 

„ uses of . 

• 11 

. 210 

Surface wells . 

. 16 

. 29 


. 169 

89, 195 

Sweet potatoes 

. 107 

. 119 

Swiss lake-dwellers, food 6f 

. 246 





Tapioca . • • 

. 28 

Vegetable marrow . 

. 113 

Tarragon . 

. 205 


. 81 

Tartaric acid . 

. 211 

Vinegar . 

. 212 


. 214 

„ Ceylon 

. 214 

Walnuts. , 

. 139 

„ Chinese . 

. 214 


. 123 

„ Indiaii 

. 214 

Water, filtration of . 

. 20 

„ Japanese . 

. 214 

„ hardness of . 

. 8 

„ substitutes 

. 220 

„ in food 

. II 

Tinned meats . 

. 181 

„ in human body 

• 5 

Tobacco . 

. 222 

„ softening of. , 

. 22 


. 113 

„ supply. 

. H 

Tripe , 

. 169 

,, testing of . 

. 12 

Truffles . 

. 115 

Wheat . . . . 

. 61 

Trypsin . . . , 

. 44, 48 

,, embryos 

. 71 

Turnips . • 

. 102 

„ grain, structure of. 

. 65 

Turtle . . . , 

. 173 

„ imports 

, 64 

Tyrotoxicon . . , 

. 147 

Whey . . . . 

. 156 

Whisky , . , , 

. 198 

Vanilla . . . . 

. 208 

Wine . . . . 


Veal . . , . 

164, 167 


Vegetable foods . , 

. 61 

Yam t • • » 













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